Dr. Alina Georgeta Mag
Department of Teacher Training, Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Romania.


ISBN 978-93-89816-78-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-89816-79-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/assr/v1


This book covers all areas of arts and social studies. The contributions by the authors include letter naming knowledge, phonological awareness, spelling knowledge, kindergarten children, social anxiety, biological sex, leadership style, secondary school, typology, educational systems, sustainable tourism, regional cooperation, learner-centred, classroom environment, activity based language teaching, teacher-centered, higher secondary students, methodology of language teaching, pedagogy, language acquisition, learning, second language instruction, language learner, language instructor, teacher, student, psychological aspects, language skills, listening, speaking, reading, writing, second language acquisition, communicative competence, components of language, second language acquisition, universal grammar approach, cognitive approach, linguistic approach, sociolinguistic perspective, communication skills, learning strategies, cognitive development, speaking skill, reinforced learning, spaced repetition system, cognitive process, language learning, memory, e-learning, black board, LMS, teaching and learning, education performance  etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of arts and social studies.



Literature Review: Marijuana Use, Social Anxiety Symptoms & Demographics

Jennifer Garrison, Trent Nguyen

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 1-25

Researches concerning the environmental and biological factors that contribute to marijuana use and social anxiety have been examined in the literature. Correlations between marijuana use, social anxiety symptoms, biological sex and age have been studied. This literature review investigated relationships among these variables. Extraneous data including marital status, ethnicity, employment status, state of residency, and socioeconomic status were also investigated.

Letter Naming Knowledge, Phonological Awareness, and Spelling Knowledge of Kindergarten Children at Risk for Learning to Read

David D. Paige, William H. Rupley, Grant S. Smith, Crystal Olinger, Mary Leslie

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 26-40

This study measures letter naming, phonological awareness, and spelling knowledge in 2,100 kindergarten students attending 63 schools within a large, urban school district. Students were assessed across December, February, and May of the kindergarten year. Results found that, by May, 71.8% of students had attained full letter naming knowledge. Phonological awareness emerged more slowly with 48% of students able to reliably segment and blend phonemes in words. Spelling development, a measure of phonics knowledge, found that, by May, 71.8% of students were in the partial-alphabetic phase. A series of regression analyses revealed that by the end of kindergarten both letter naming and phonological awareness were significant predictors of spelling knowledge (β=.332 and .518 for LK and PA, resp.), explaining 52.7% of the variance.

Brief Overview of Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon

Asan Vernyuy Wirba

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 41-53

 This chapter examines the leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, using the typologies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. In this chapter, I discuss the leadership styles of principals in schools in Cameroon and put forward ideas for continuous improvement in the area of leadership and management of schools in Cameroon. I use a qualitative approach and a semi-structured interview in this chapter. The ten provinces of Cameroon were used by selecting out of each province ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students to represent the respondents. The majority of these principals in various schools in various provinces described themselves as transformational leaders. Doubts were cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon that principals gave as a style that defines them since there are less training and development for leadership in schools in Cameroon.

Sustainable Tourism Development Using Soft System Methodology (SSM): A Case Study in Padang Panjang Regency West Sumatra, Indonesia

Kholil ., Nugroho Sukamdani, Soecahyadi .

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 54-62

Geographically, Padang panjang regency which located in a heart of Western Sumatra have great potentials for tourism industry. However, these potentials have not been fully utilized for increasing local economic development and peoples welfare.

The purpose of this study is to determine the most appropriate strategies in accordance with the objective conditions of Padang Panjang Regency, using soft system methodology (SSM). The results showed that establishing connectivity and cooperation with the surrounding area are the most appropriate strategy to ensure sustainability of tourism sector in Padang Panjang Regency, while the most suitable cooperation with surronding area is integrated promotion and travel packages.

Activity Based Learning for the Effectiveness in L2 Learning to Enhance Speaking Skills of the Students

K. Jeya Gowri, M. Ilankumaran, R. Abilasha

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 63-73

The current paper displays the failure of traditional methods used in the English language classrooms which are purely teacher-centred and do not allow the students to be competent in English. It is because, in the teacher-centred classrooms, the students remain as mute spectators. They cannot be communicative in the classroom. Indeed, this condition has to be reconstructed and lifted through various teaching strategies. Learner-centred classroom has to be adopted for the efficient and effective communication of the students. This paper tries to convey the factors associated with the environment of English language teaching situation in higher secondary schools. The education policy has been developed among the schools but the teaching and learning strategies remain the same in typical classroom teaching. The eminence of language education in schools and colleges in the current era shows a dreadful picture. The proficiency of the teachers in English language and the exposure to the materials and language are the main concern in English language learning as well as teaching. This article uncovers the utility of executing the methodology of language teaching through various tasks or activities for the higher secondary and higher education students in the classroom. This paper analyses the concept in regard to the English language learners in transition with reference to the activity based language teaching in the classroom environment.

A Neurolinguistic Perspective of L2 Acquisition: An Overview

A. Delbio, M. Ilankumaran

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 74-83

Second language acquisition is an enormously a complex phenomenon. Second language means learning any language next to the learner’s first language. This paper brings out the approaches of second language acquisition and the perceptions of learners. The approaches are linguistic, neurolinguistic, cognition, and socio cultural. It is not possible for the learner to describe the language system, because the second language learners find hard to develop it. In learning a new language formal and informal way of learning takes place. Formal learning means classroom based learning, in which the learner acquires the language in a systematic way. In informal learning, the learners acquire the language through picking up from the native speaker or through internet. Stephen Krashen distinguishes this formal and informal as conscious learning and unconscious learning. The theoretical perspectives of second language acquisition are discussed in this paper. Universal grammar approach is the most influential linguistic theory in the field of acquiring the second language. This theory attempts to find out the linguistic knowledge in second language learners’ mind. This paper also deals with how the features of language input affect language learning through input based perspective and learner based perspective. It also analyses the role of memory in language learning through cognitive approach. This paper also brings out the sociolinguistic perspectives and its impact in the field of second language learning.

Enriching Second Language Skills through Cognitive Aspects

A. Delbio, M. Ilankumaran, R. Abilasha

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 84-95

 Language plays a main role in human civilization. The importance of foreign language is stressed in educational field. In the field of foreign language acquisition, cognitive function is given priority. Psychological perspective is the theoretical study about cognitive functioning in acquiring the language. This paper focuses on components and skills of language. Moreover, psychological problems in attaining the second language skills are discussed. In learning second language skills, the LSRW play the prominent role. Listening is preliminary to all other skills. Reading is a complex mechanism of decoding the messages in print. Speaking is natural expression in language, which is not always consciously regulated. Speaking implies, speaking with appropriateness to the social context. Writing is the most difficult and demanding of skills. Listening and speaking are considered to be the receptive skills and speaking and writing are the productive skills. For second language learners, all the skills are necessary in proportion of learner’s requirement. The leaner of second language needs to give more attention on language skills as well as the components of the language. Phonology, Lexis, grammar and pragmatics are also needed in accomplishing the communicative competence. The correct direction may help the learners to get success in their goal. The teachers have to play the main role in language acquisition, because the learners get reinforced by them. The teacher can follow some techniques to improve the communicative competence of the students. Some of the techniques are discussed in this paper. This paper also brings out the importance of language skills and the need of components of language to overcome the barriers in acquiring the second language. 

Integrating Content-based Instruction in Language Teaching to Secondary Level Students

V. J. Vinita, M. Ilankumaran

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 96-105

The most important modern linguistic method of teaching English is Content-Based Instruction (CBI). In Content-Based Instruction, the material for study is utilized for language instructional purposes. The paper presents an overview of language teaching through a pedagogic model of Content-Based Instruction (CBI) to secondary level students. Content-Based Teaching functions as the crux of the study and it holds on to the two significant areas of interest-the Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and pedagogy. This paper highlights how CBI along with the Audio-Lingual method, Direct Method and Counselling Language Learning can promote secondary level students' language acquisition. The study addresses the current barriers that are found in language learning among the learning community that is quite prevalent in our educational system.  The study infers that the students would perform better when been introduced to the CBI compared to that of the conventional mode of learning. Content-Based Instruction highlights the mechanism of speech and proper structural format of L2 in the usage of spoken English among the English language users at the Secondary level in school. This presentation reviews how CBI can improve the speech skill sets in Second language learners. Teachers and language practitioners involved in education will find this piece of writing useful. He article verifies the different methodologies of Teaching in English. It presents an amalgamation of certain teaching methods - CBI, Audio -lingual method and Direct method, which increases the efficacy in the use of Second Language Learning (SLL) among the Secondary School students. This will increase the potential future English teachers. They will learn that a well-planned program will effectively provide skill-effective instructors, which can work for a better learning condition for the on-coming generations. Structured content and instruction will contribute a great learning experience. The study ensures the Second Language (L2) users develop both in their communicative competence and in their language skills through CBI.

Principles of Designing Speaking Strategies in a Second Language Classroom

S. Sreena, M. Ilankumaran

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 106-116

Language has its own set of rules for speaking and writing in a proper way.  Speaking in a person’s native language well and accurate is a challenging task, but acquiring the speaking skill in a second language requires more effort, commitment and practice. Speaking a second language is an important skill for every modern student. Classroom is a learning place or environment where the learning process takes place. Classroom teaching refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that the teacher used to keep the students into organized, orderly, focused and attentive person on task and develop the speaking ability to them. A teacher is one who interacts with students and the role model of them. Teacher is a person who supports the students when they need help. The teacher acts the roles of a resource person, an instructor, mentor, helping hand to the students and finally a learner forever. The learners clearly feel that classroom based speaking practice prepared them for the real world and the teacher is the guide to achieve that goal. Spoken language is both interactional and transactional. When teaching the spoken language is based on the performances in a classroom, the main focus on teaching longer transactional turns into interactional outcome. Making the learners to be the master of spoken language, the teacher follows certain principles and strategies. The basic truth or proposition that serves as the foundation for a system of belief or behavior is known as principle. The act or process of taking an action or work in a successful way is known as performance. This paper mainly deals with the basic principles for designing the classroom speaking techniques and the types of classroom speaking performances of the students by their teachers.

The Significance of Spaced Learning Technique in Enhancing English Language Acquisition and the Cognitive Process involved in Language Learning: A Study

G. Alamelu, M. Ilankumaran

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 117-126

Cognitive process is the mental activity of acquiring and processing of information through thoughts, experiences and senses. Learning, on the other hand, is the process of accumulating knowledge through experience, study or through teaching methodologies. Though cognition and learning appear to be two different entities, they are inexorably linked with each other. Learning requires cognition, while cognition involves learning. In the process of learning a language or an art, memory plays a vital role in the cognitive system. Learning at the rudimentary level, especially in the lower grade, happens through rote method where the information is slowly transmitted from the sensory memory to the long-term memory. Through this cognitive process, the development of word power or vocabulary is gained and understanding of sentence structure is achieved. The learner, thus, gains knowledge of syntax and semantic usage of a language. In the process, the learner inevitably undergoes three phases of acquiring knowledge from the basic level of acquiring vocabulary, to the intermediary level of gaining fluency, and to the final level of gaining proficiency in language. Spaced Repetition System, shortly known as SRS is a method of reinforcing data in the memory of learner at systematic intervals, has larger scope in the learning process, which is highly effective at rudimentary and intermediary levels. Nevertheless this method appears to be anew, it has already been practiced in the Vedic period where the Indian disciples learnt the scriptures from their masters by systematic repetition. This paper attempts to understand the interconnection of the cognitive process in the learning of English as a second language by the technique of SRS.

Teaching and Learning Strategies to Enrich the Oral Communication Skills in L2: New Perspective

S. Sreena, M. Ilankumaran

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 127-137

The efficiency of speaking skills in English is a main concern for many second language learners. In the second language classroom, teachers should train learners to use and practice the strategies that can help the students to face difficult situation in speaking. The learners in a second language may have numberless occasions to practice the language. The application of cognitive strategies can increase the competence and self-assurance. While instructing, cognitive strategies require a high quantity of dedication from the teachers and the learners. The outcomes are well appeal to the effort done by the teacher and the learner. The expertness of speaking skills in English is a main concern for many second language learners. Teachers are the role models of the learners in every aspect of learning. Teacher’s role is like that of a learner, facilitator, resource person, assessor, manager, evaluator and an instructor. Teachers make the second language classroom more vibrant using certain techniques and activities. With the help of the teachers and the methods, the learners reach their goal at the end of the opportunity to work towards their potential. Teachers need to know that capricious factors are proscribed through the speaking atmosphere, by understanding their students’ cognitive styles, their learning preferences, how they instruct and what they educate. There are many diverse types of learner strategies which the teachers need to be aware of in order to understand the strategies children bring with them and how they speak the language in the best way. This paper deals with various learning strategies for cognitive development and strategies for speaking second language in a classroom.

Machine Deep Learning in E-learning: Study of Influence on the Performance of Primary School Students

Hatem Ahmed Soliman, Zeinab Mohamed Hassan Khalifa, Mahmoud Mostafa Attia Saleh

Arts and Social Studies Research Vol. 1, , 28 April 2020, Page 138-143

An e-Learning service is a valuable tool that can help school directors, teachers, and students to do various teaching and learning activities online. Such a service can improve the quality of teaching at schools. To examine the practical effect of this service, we surveyed the usage of the e-Learning system in teaching and learning activities in a chosen primary school in Saudi Arabia. The targeted group was students in grades five and six who undertook Math, Science, and English courses in the second semester of the session 2018-2019. In this paper, we develop a questionnaire to measure the satisfaction levels of the targeted students regarding the services provided by the Black Board learning management system (LMS). The main finding of this study is that there is still a gap between the e-Learning theoretical principles and the practice. Students’ recommendations helped us to overcome the difficulties encountered to improve the educational system. One of the main recommendations that we got from our students is to have lecture pictures and posters uploaded on the system before lecture time so that they can review it before class time.