Dr. Manikant Tripathi
Assistant Professor,
Department of Microbiology, Dr. Rammanohar Lohia Avadh University, India.


ISBN 978-93-89562-78-1 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-89562-79-8 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/tamb/v2


This book covers all areas of microbiology and biotechnology. The contributions by the authors include HIV, AIDS, salicornia, inoculation, salinity, Staphylococcus aureus, anterior nares, opportunistic infection, antibiotic resistance, linezolid and methicillin resistance,, enteropathogenic, E. coli, multidrug resistance, asymptomatic, cyclic lipopeptides, fluorescent pseudomonads, viscosinamide, zoospores, antifungal, anaerobic infections, anaerobic bacteria, antibiotics, Acacia nilotica, percentage reduction, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose, malted foods, Listeria monocytogenes, fresh raw milk, abattoir effluents, traditional medicine, Ocimum, Cymbopogon, diarrhea, plant growth, micro-organisms, dengue fever, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), probiotics, physico-chemical parameters of water, total heterotrophic bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, antibacterial activity, scent leaf, gastrointestinal bacteria, phytochemicals, plant extract, Vigna unguiculata (L.), Bradyrhizobium etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of microbiology and biotechnology.


Amylase Rich Malted Foods on the Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women, Lactating Women and Preschool Children in Lepakshi Mandal of Ananthapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India

Vijaya Khader, K. Uma Maheswari

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 1-16

Two types of Ready to Use Amylase rich malted mixes (Ragi / Wheat in combination with green gram) were formulated and suitable products namely laddu, roti, kheer and porridge were prepared using formulated malted mixes . The incorporation of malted green gram mix and skimmed milk powder to the wheat malted mix and ragi malted mix helped to improve nutritive value of the malted mixes, specially  protein, energy, iron, calcium and ‘B’ complex vitamins . After collecting baseline information of the identified villages of 3 mandals, Lepakashimandal was selected for implementing the study based on the availability of more subjects of low socio economic group with majority of families belonging to schedule caste and schedule tribes. ARMMs of two types (ragi/wheat) were formulated.

Information of preschool children (400), pregnant women (100) and lactating women (100) was collected. Anthropometric, hemoglobin, clinical and morbidity assessments were carried out before & after supplementation. Amylase Rich Malted Mixes (ARMMs) 2 types (Ragi/Wheat) were formulated and suitable products namely laddu, roti, kheer and porridge were prepared using formulated malted mixes. Malting decreased grain length, width, kernel weight (0.45 to 19.0g), volume (0.50 –31.2 ml) and hardness (1.12 to 5.9 kg/cm2), thus reduced the bulk density of the malted mixes. Chemical composition revealed that, the significant increase (P<0.05) in fat (2.27 g), carbohydrate (98.0 g) and calorie (396 kcal) content of wheat malted mix. However significant increase was observed in calcium (440 mg), thiamine (0.7 mg) and riboflavin (0.9 mg) content of ragi malted mix. Germinated greengram had significantly higher protein (33.0 g), fibre (11.5 g), iron (8.0 g) and vitamin C (157.8 mg) content. The selected preschool children, pregnant women & lactating women were divided into 3 groups. Group II and III fed with ragi malted mix & wheat malted mix respectively served as the experimental groups and remaining group I served as the control group. Significant increase was observed in weight of preschool children and lactating women after supplementation. Hemoglobin level in pregnant and lactating women significantly increased (P<0.01) after supplementation. Considerable reduction (50%) in the incidence of PEM, vitamin A, B vitamins, vitamin C and iron deficiency symptoms in experimental groups. After supplementation, morbidity rate decreased to 50% both the Group II and III.

Efficacy of Probiotics in Improving Water Quality and Bacterial Flora in Fish Ponds

P. Padmavathi, K. Sunitha

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 17-26

Fish culture aimed at high production through intense culture practices often leads not only to the alteration in water quality but also to severe disease problems. The accumulation of organic wastes deteriorates water quality and encourages the proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms. To avoid these problems, probiotics are used as bioremediation tool. The present study was aimed to know the changing patterns of beneficial and pathogenic bacterial loads and water quality in fish ponds treated with pond probiotics. For this study, three earthen fish ponds, were cultured Pangasius sutchi, Catla catla and Labeo rohita, located in Balliparru near Machilipatnam in Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India were selected and studied for a culture period during 2009 to 2010. Two ponds were treated with probiotics having Nitrosomonas (1.62 kg/ha) and Nitrobacter (0.82 kg/ha) species and one pond was kept as control. During the culture period (August 2009 to July 2010), water quality parameters and the populations of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), beneficial bacteria (Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter species) and pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas) in water were analyzed. It was observed that in treated ponds, THB and beneficial bacterial load increased and pathogenic Pseudomonas load decreased. The bacterial population changed during every fortnight sampling of the culture period. The changing patterns of different bacteria in treated and control ponds were compared and discussed. The concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and phosphates were observed to be low in treated ponds than in the control pond. The present study revealed that the probiotics are instrumental in maintaining good water quality, higher beneficial and lower pathogenic bacterial loads in fish ponds.

Linezolid and Methicillin Resistances in S. aureus Isolated from the Anterior Nares of Apparently Healthy Undergraduates of the Niger Delta University, Nigeria

Abdulrasheed Abdu, Adebayo Lamikanra

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 27-37

Background: The carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the anterior nares of subjects in the study environment has not been carried out before and this study is thus a reference study against which future studies can be compared. The isolates obtained were also tested against frequently used antibiotics as well as linezolid, an antibiotic which is of considerable importance in the treatment of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Methods: A total of 400 nasal swabs were collected from anterior nares of apparently healthy subjects aseptically using a sterile swab sticks. The antibiotic susceptibilities of isolates of S. aureus obtained against eight different antibiotics including Linezolid were determined using the disc-plate method.

Results: The results showed that 91 (22.8%) of the subjects tested are nasal carriers of S. aureus. The incidences of resistance observed with each of the antibiotics tested were as follow: Erythromycin 83(91.2%), Tetracycline 79(86.8%), Co-trimoxazole 78(86.8%), Cefoxitin 77(84.6%), Linezolid 72(79.1%), Ciprofloxacin 70(76.9%), Augmentin 49(53.8%) and Gentamycin 39 (42.9%).

Conclusion: Treatment of S. aureus infections within the study environment should be based on the results of in vitro susceptibility testing of the isolates. Gentamicin promises to be the best antibiotic for the treatment of disorders associated with Staphylococci in the study area. This is of special importance in an environment within which a very substantial proportion of the isolates are resistant to methicillin and linezolid.

Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus in the Development of Salicornia neei in Saline Water

K. A. V. da Silva, J. P. Oliveira, J. G. Fernandes, A. S. Messias

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 38-45

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Claroideoglomus etunicatum on the development of Salicornia neei subjected to five treatments: water, desalinator reject, reject plus one dose (7 g) of NaCl, reject plus two doses of NaCl and reject plus three doses of NaCl. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco - IPA, in a completely randomized design, with autoclaved and non-autoclaved soil, with three replications. A dose corresponding to 1.0 mL ̸ kg of Hoagland & Arnon complete nutrient solution soil was added to each well and watered daily with the corresponding treatments. In the conduction of the experiment, polyethylene vessels with 8 kg of saline soil were used. The results showed that the reject with the intermediate doses (Reject + 1NaCl and Reject + 2NaCl) was more significant for the growth (17.16 cm and 17.37 cm respectively) of Salicornia neei.

Cyclic Depsipeptide Producing Fluorescent Pseudomonads Exerts Antifungal Activity against Fungal Pathogens of Maize (Zea mays)

Radhajeyalakshmi Raju

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 46-55

Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) with antibiotic, biosurfactant producing fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from sugar beet-maize intercropped in sandy loam soils at Maize Research Station, Vagarai, TNAU. Approximately 20 fluorescent pseudomonads from sandy loam soils were isolated by using two different growth media. The strains were distinguished based on their growth, CFU/g, fluorescence, and pigment production. Growth inhibition of maize pathogens by CLP producing fluorescent pseudomonads strains were studied by dual culture experiments. The impact of CLP producing flurorescent pseudomonads strain on the zoospores of Downy mildew pathogen of maize was studied by direct microscopy and encysted zoospores were observed. Invitro, biochemical experiments confirmed the presence of Viscosinamide producing strain among the fluorescent pseudomonads isolates in terms of utilization of C and N sources. The particular strain was tested for its growth promoting activity by treating the maize seeds for their germination, and seedling vigour performance. Fluorescent pseudomonads can be affiliated to group under CLP producing biotypes/biovars. Purification of CLP (Viscosinamide) and characterization by HPLC analysis was carried out. Pot culture experiments were conducted to test the performance of CLP producing Pf strains in maize crop for testing their disease resistance. These biovars with antibiotic properties are the potential targets for the disease management in maize. CLPs in general receive considerable attention as potent antimicrobial drugs.

Time Kill-kinetics Antibacterial Study of Acacia nilotica

P. Oladosu, N. R. Isu, K. Ibrahim, P. Okolo, D. K. Oladepo

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 56-62

In vitro time-kill kinetics antibacterial study of Acacia nilotica was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus determined by plate count technique and analyzed by percentage and log reduction. All test organisms were susceptible to the aqueous methanolic extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged between 0.5 and 1 mg, while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged between ≥1 and ≥2 mg/ml. Average log reductions in viable cell counts for the extract ranged between 0.18log10 and 0.35log10 cfu/ml for P. aeruginosa, 0.27log10 and 1.95log10 cfu/ml for S. aureus and 0.27log10 and 0.45log 10 cfu/ml for E. coli after 10 h interaction at 0.5x MIC and 1x MIC. Most of the extracts were rapidly bactericidal at 2x MIC achieving a complete elimination of most of the test organisms within 12 h exposure. A good correlation was found between the killing curves and the MIC of A. nilotica against the test organisms.

Multidrug Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Asymptomatic School Going Children in Kibera Slum, Kenya

N. J. Gitahi, P. B. Gathura, M. M. Gicheru, T. W. Githinji, A. Nordin

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 63-73

Pathogenic Escherichia coli are of different types, currently grouped into six groups depending on the virulence gene(s) they possess. This study isolated pathogenic E. coli from 580 stool samples obtained in the month of August, 2016. The samples were obtained from asymptomatic school going children in one of the biggest urban slums in Kenya. Ten primary schools were randomly sampled and 40 to 80 stool samples collected from each school depending on the school population. Both gender and age were considered when sampling. Data obtained was analysed using single factor ANOVA to test association between school location and levels of infection with pathogenic bacteria. A total of 244 (17%) samples had E. coli. Out of these, 38 (6.5%) were shown to have one or a combination of the pathogenic genes, namely: ipaH, virF, st2, daaE, eae, aafII, stx1, bfp, lt and stII and were thus classified into seven groups. Of the pathogenic isolates 35 (21.2%) were multidrug resistant. There was an association between school location and the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, asymptomatic school going children in the slum were found to be infected with multidrug resistant pathogenic E. coli.

Use of Clinical and Laboratory Clue to Diagnose Anaerobic Infections in Limited Resource Setting

Sima E. Rugarabamu

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 74-81

Increase in life threatening infection despite the use of antimicrobial among patient’s in limited resource areas has made it imperative to investigate bacteria causing infections. However, comprehensive anaerobic bacteriology of clinical specimens is expensive and time consuming procedure. With advance in diagnostic techniques, the role of anaerobic bacteria in the etiology of various infection has become increasingly recognized. While a number of infections or intoxication due to anaerobic bacteria or their toxins arise from exogenous source such as the soil the majority are often endogenous origin arising frequently from the intestinal tract, oral cavity or the female genital tract. This chapter therefore highlight pointers for clinical and laboratory clue of anaerobic infection, additionally practical laboratory procedure to Isolate and identify anaerobes have been explained.

Usefulness of Commercial Rapid Test Kits as an Effective Diagnostic Tool of Dengue Virus Infection in a Low Resource Setting

Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, Kadia Kallap, Chandrashekhar Unakal, Arvind Kurhade

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 82-91

Rapid immuno-chromatographic tests (ICTs) or diagnostic kits that are commercially available were evaluated for their sensitivity, specificity, cost and turnaround time (TAT) results with Dengue IgM/IgG capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) as the standard test, in blood samples from a cross-section of individuals with clinical features suggestive of dengue fever attending health care facilities in Trinidad and Tobago. Blood samples taken from 100 consented participants were analyzed using the two rapid ICTs (SD Bioline Dengue Duo NS1/IgM/IgG and Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette) and compared with the Dengue IgM/IgG capture ELISAs. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain bio and epidemiological data of the participants. The laboratory evaluation also assessed the TAT to complete the tests as well as the cost for each test method. The laboratory analysis on a given number (n=93) revealed that the SD Bioline was more sensitive (39.9%) than the Panbio (22.1%; p=0.005), and specificities for both were 100%. The SD Bioline includes an extra biomarker test with the same TAT and differs in cost by USD$ 1.14 as opposed to the Panbio. The ELISA has a cost of USD$ 8.07 and despite its longer TAT, it has the advantage of running more samples (1 vs 96) at a given time. While SD Bioline may be the better choice with a higher sensitivity, dengue ELISAs should also be favourably considered as an option for diagnostic purposes. In a resource strapped setting like the laboratories in Trinidad and Tobago, the ELISA should be preferred because its sensitivity and specificity were higher than the Panbio and SD Bioline kits. Besides, more samples were tested giving an effective TAT for amounts of samples completed despite a higher cost.

Role of Medicinal Plants for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh

Krishan Kumar, Anita Kumari

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 92-97

Morbidity and mortality due to diarrheoa was a major problem in many developing countries, including India and Bangladesh, especially amongst children. Many readily available plants in India are used in traditional folklore medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as cholera, diarrhea and dysentery. Medicinal plants are very popular in different traditional systems of medicines due to their diverse pharmacological potentials and lesser side effects in biological systems. Awareness of traditional knowledge and medicinal plants can play a key role in the exploitation and discovery of natural plant resources. Medicinal plants are presently in demand and their acceptance is increasing progressively. Undoubtedly, plants play an important role by providing essential services in ecosystems. Cymbopogon citratus essential oil includes mircene, neral, geranial and other unidentified compounds and is used for fighting colds, dysentery, headaches. The essential oil derived from the Ocimum gratissimum is applied against fever, inflammations of the throat, ears or eyes, stomach pain, diarrhoea and skin diseases.  Anti-motility and anti-secretory activities of Piper nigrum might be due to the presence of carbohydrates and alkaloids. This review paper suggest that traditional medicinal plants can be used for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery.

Antibacterial Activity of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) on Some Pathogenic Gastrointestinal Bacteria

Agholor Kin, Lucy M. Yaki, Idris Abubakar, Lucy F. Olusola, Rakiya Zubairu

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 98-106

The emergence of antibiotic resistance as well as the recent undesirable side effect of some of the commercially available antibiotics has led to the screening of plant extract in order to discover new drug that could serve as alternative therapy for the treatment of various infections and diseases. Fresh leaf of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) sample was collected, air-dried at room temperature and blended to powder using electric blender. The extraction was done using reflux extraction method and methanol as solvent. The phytochemical analysis and the antibacterial activity of O. gratissimum were determined to ascertain the different phytochemicals present in the plant extract. The extract was also tested against some selected Gram negative intestinal pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella species, by reconstituting the extract in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) to obtain different concentration (0.2, 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 g/ml) and agar well diffusion techniques were used to evaluate the antibacterial susceptibility of the leaf extract. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinone, flavonoid, glycoside, phenol, saponin, steroid and tannins. The result of antibacterial analysis showed that the extract of O. gratissimum has antibacterial activity against E. coli. This could be as a result of the presence of various phytochemicals or the interaction of one or more of the identified metabolites against the test organisms. However, there was no zone of inhibition (antibacterial effect) recorded on Salmonella and Shigella spp. as they were resistant to the extract. The results obtained from this research, suggest that Escherichia coli was susceptible to the leaf extract and the plant could be used as potential source of natural product for the treatment of infection.

Agnihotra for Welfare of Human Society & Environment-Scientific Evidences: A Review

Mamta Gokhale, Radhika Patel, Aman Bharti

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 107-112

The rich Indian culture and heritage has provided lasting solutions to many difficulties and even to the problems of the modern world. The custom of yadnya, Agnihotra yadnya, is one such part of the Indian customs. The procedure of the yadnya and the benefits by performing it has been investigated and are still the part of unfathomable science. The following review is a yield of the recent research works that have been dealing with agnihotra yadnya and its benefits. Along with the benefits of Agnihotra yadnya, the present review also discusses the effects of agnihotra ash on growth of plants, and on pathogenic micro-organisms. The use of agnihotra ash as remedial medicine for various diseases is also an aspect of the discussion.

Enzymatic Responses of Vigna radiata Seedlings under Biotic and Abiotic Stress

Rafia Azmat, Aliya Hayat, Farha Aziz, Masooda Qadri

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 113-123

Soil ecology is very fascinating due to its composition in which microbial strains sometime play a marvelous role in presence of several metals. The micronutrient metals are essential part of soil provides help in germination while toxic when exceed to a certain limits. This article aims to evaluate the cumulative effect of isolated bacterial strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri with copper (Cu) as a bioactive element in seed germination of four days old Vigna radiata. The germination of seeds also monitored at varying concentrations of Cu as a micronutrient. An important function of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was observed in the shoots of four days old seedlings of V. radiata, cultivated in a series of experiments in the presence and absence of biotic and abiotic stresses simultaneously and separately. It was observed that germination of the seedlings were inhibited in presence of P. stutzeri separately may be due to the marked decrease in lipid contents. Results showed high LDH activity and high glucose contents as compared to the control ones indicated that high LDH activity was linked with elevated energy demand to overcome the stress for germination of seeds. Unexpectedly, germination of seeds was favored with increasing concentrations of Cu (100 ppm) with P. stutzeri simultaneously, although both biotic and abiotic seemed to be toxic separately. No microbial life at the highest concentration of Cu showed that it was toxic to the bacterial strain, but normal growth of seedlings suggested that dead mass of P. stutzeri was effective for the adsorption of the Cu on their surface due to which Cu mobility was checked recommencing the normal activity of LDH and glucose contents that believed to be at the cost of lipid contents. A suitable mechanism consistent with the finding has been proposed.

Antibiotic Resistant Profiles of Food (Fresh Raw Milk) and Environmental (Abattoir Effluents) Isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from the Six Zones of Nigeria

L. U. Enurah, O. O. Aboaba, S. C. U. Nwachukwu, C. I. Nwosuh

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 124-132

The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh raw milk and abattoir effluents in the six zones of Nigeria was determined. Antibiotic resistant profile of the isolates was examined using the Bauer- Kirby disc diffusion assay. A total of 626 food and environmental samples were cultured on selective media out of which 54 (8.6%) were positive for L. monocytogenes. Chloramphenicol was the most effective antibiotic against the isolates with the least resistance (3.70%) while nalidixic acid proved to be least effective with resistance of 90.74%. The multiple-antibiotic resistant pattern of the isolates showed nalidixic acid/cloxacillin (35.2%), nalidixic acid/colistin (31.5%) and cloxacillin/colistin/nalidixic acid (29.6%) to be most prominent. The least value was observed in chloramphenicol/nitrofurantin/cotrimoxazole with 5.6%. The modal values of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antibiotics to the isolates range between 4.0 and >16.0 µg/ml. Chloramphenicol, nitrofurantin and gentamycin recorded the highest MIC compared with other antibiotics. This study has demonstrated that a wide and rapidly expanding range of undesirable and, in some cases, multi-resistant determinants is currently present in L. monocytogenes.

Rates and Sources of Soluble Phosphorus on the Behavior of Cowpea Plants Inoculated with Rhizobacteria from Soils of the North Region of Brazil

Érica de Oliveira Araújo, Juliana Guimarães Gerola, Caiqui Raoni Gomes Ferreira, Leandro Cecílio Matte

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 133-142

Cowpea can obtain N through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) through symbiosis with rhizobacteria. However, nodulation and BNF are influenced by edaphoclimatic factors that may bring about benefits or damages to the process, and the availability of nutrients is among the main factors that affect BNF and phosphorus (P). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of doses and sources of soluble P on nodulation, accumulation of nutrients, N and P absorption and use efficiency in cowpea plants inoculated with or without rhizobacteria. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology, Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste-RO Campus, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, corresponding to five P rates (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5), two soluble sources of P2O5 [single superphosphate (SSP) and thermophosphate], absence and presence of inoculation, with four replication. The findings of this study show that inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. promotes increment in the dry matter production and increases N and P absorption efficiency in cowpea plants. The single superphosphate led to higher N and P absorption efficiency, production of shoot dry matter and production of nodules, when compared with thermophosphate. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. associated with SSP fertilization promotes higher P absorption efficiency in cowpea plants. Therefore, increase in P rates promoted increments in P concentrations in cowpea leaves.

Use of Condom and Knowledge of Own HIV Status among Undergraduates of Ten Tertiary Schools in Ekiti and Ondo States Southwest, Nigeria

G. O. Daramola, H. A. Edogun, A. O. Ojerinde, A. A. Agbaje, O. O. Ogunfolakan, O. O. Ajala, A. Egbebi, E. F. Akerele

Theory and Applications of Microbiology and Biotechnology Vol. 2, , 17 December 2019, Page 143-151

Bearing a burden of 66.7% of all global cases, HIV infection has become a major health challenge in Africa in general and sub-Sahara Africa in particular. For this reason, the battle to halt HIV/AIDS’ spread in Africa, particularly in Nigeria is being fought on different fronts, carefully considering all factors that can help bring down prevalence rate and curb the spread of the disease. Two of such fronts are advocacies for the consistent and right use of a condom, as well as voluntary testing to know own HIV status. In this study, 100 undergraduates each were sampled consecutively from ten tertiary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States of Nigeria, so as to evaluate the level of use of condom and knowledge of own HIV status among this group of youths and young adults. The study was conducted through the use of self-administered questionnaires among the enrolled undergraduates. The 1000 subjects comprised 421(42.1%) males and 57.1 (57.1%) females, while 8 (0.8%) did not disclose their gender. Five hundred and twenty-one (52.1%) of the subjects fell within the 21-30 age-bracket, 407 (40.7%) were 20years and below, 22 (2.2%) were within the 31-40 age-bracket, while 12(1.2%) were 40years and above. Thirty-eight (3.8%) did not disclose their age-bracket. Two hundred and four (20.4%) of the subjects always used condom, 169 (16.9%) used it occasionally, 139 (13.9%) never used during sexual intercourse, 403(40.3%) indicated that the use of condom wasn’t applicable to them (this group was presumed to be sexually inactive/inert), while 85 (8.5%) didn’t volunteer information about their sexual activity. Findings also revealed that majority, 564(56.4%) of the subjects did not know their HIV status, 51(5.1%) were indifferent about their HIV status, 25 (2.5%) did not disclose if they knew their HIV status or not. However, 360 (36%) knew their HIV status. With more than half of the study population not knowing their HIV status, it is therefore suggested that health policy-makers should scale-up advocacy activities to persuade the general populace in Nigeria to go for voluntary testing.