**Editor(s) **

**Dr. Sebahattin Tüzemen**

Professor,

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Turkey.

**ISBN 978-93-89246-70-4 (Print)**

**ISBN 978-93-89246-71-1 (eBook)**

DOI: 10.9734/bpi/taps/v1

*This book covers all areas of physical science. The contributions by the authors include** superluminal signals, quantum electrodynamics, Heisenberg and Schrödinger representations, adiabatic hypothesis, Einstein–Maxwell equations, exact solutions, Kerr–Newman black holes, Newman–Janis algorithm, Mittag-Leffler function, time varying capacity function, convolution operation, Laplace transform, fractional derivative, microstructure, electron, photon, heat, energy, heat capacity, heat balance, losses coefficient, thermal conductivities, photons, quantum electrodynamics, Green's functions, chaotic system, simulation, circuit model, analog circuit implementation, superluminal signals, quantum electrodynamics, excited atoms etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science.*

### Chapters

Shantanu Das

*Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1*,
,
21 November 2019,
Page 1-44

Here in this Chapter the verification of newly developed formula of charge storage in capacitor as q = c*v, in RC circuit, is carried out in order to get validation for ideal loss less capacitor as well as fractional order capacitors for charging and discharging cases. This new formula is generalization of charge storage mechanism in capacitors dielectric relaxations (with and without memory effect), which is different to usual and conventional way of writing capacitance multiplied by voltage to get charge stored in a capacitor i.e. q = cv. We use this new formulation i.e. q = c*v in the RC circuits to verify the results that are obtained via classical circuit theory, for a case of classical ideal loss less capacitor as well as for case for fractional capacitor. The use of this formulation is suited for super-capacitors, Constant Phase Elements (CPE), and for dielectric relaxations that show memory effect as they show fractional order in their behavior. This new formula is used to get the ‘memory effect’ that is observed in self-discharging phenomena of super-capacitors-that memorizes its history of charging profile. Special emphasis is given to detailed derivational steps in order to get clarity in usage of this new formula in the RC circuit examples. This Chapter validates the new formula of charge storage q = c*v, in capacitor, for circuital usage.

B. A. Veklenko, Y. I. Malachov, C. S. Nguyen, C. S. Nguyen

*Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1*,
,
21 November 2019,
Page 45-65

Theoretically and experimentally the superluminal signals arising at passage of an electromagnetic pulse through thermally excited media are investigated. It is shown that the equations of quantum electrodynamics solved by standard methods explain the appearance of such signals as a consequence of fluctuation properties of secondary quantum fields. It is indicated that quantum averages from operators of electric strength and magnetic strength in these signals are equal to zero. The field energy is different from zero. Such signals have no classical analogues. The effective superluminal velocity of the laser beam after it crosses the cylindrical parallel layer of thermally excited atoms has been calculated. The results of experiments to measure the effective superluminal velocity of the beam passing a cylindrical layer of air inside a hot metal tube are given. Quantitative agreement of theoretical and experiment data is stated.

B. A. Veklenko

*Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1*,
,
21 November 2019,
Page 66-78

Using as an example the Fermi problem dealing with nonstationary transformation of optical excitation from one atom to another the reason of superluminal signals appearance in quantum electrodynamics is clearing. It is shown that the calculation using the conventional methods in Heisenberg and Schrödinger representations in nonstationary problems lead to different results. The Schrödinger representation predicts the existents of specified quantum superluminal signals. In Heisenberg representation the superluminal signals are absent. The reason of non-identity of representations is close connected with using of the adiabatic hypothesis.

S. K. Ghoshal, Madhusree Kole

*Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1*,
,
21 November 2019,
Page 79-83

A few applications of the concept of super acceleration in the field of classical mechanics have been presented. Super acceleration , defined as the time rate of change of acceleration, will be the characteristic of motion with which an object will be moving when it is acted on by an ever-changing force with respect to time. In the case of rotational motion the could be produced by the application of a time-varying torque. The extent to which the expressions corresponding to the Newton’s equations of motion, the simple harmonic motion and the rotational motion should get modified when the concept of is taken into consideration, has been discussed.

B. A. Veklenko

*Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1*,
,
21 November 2019,
Page 84-101

The properties of the polarization operator arising in theoperator method proposed in [1] for the studies of the correlation effects of quantum optics are investigated. This kind of polarization operator indicates the existence in the temperature excited media of bound photonic pairs, formally resembling the associated states of electrons in the theory of superconductivity. To break photonic pairs requires certain energy, reminiscent of the energy gap in the superconductors. The elementary optical excitation in media that occurs when the inclusion of external monochrome disturbance frequency , along with photon pairs and signal frequency also contain signals with a frequency that is formally reminiscent of the Josephson effect. As in the theory of superconductivity, the presence of a medium is required for the formation of coupled pairs. The increase in temperature and concentration of excited atoms of the medium leads to an increase in the number of photon pairs and a loss of thermodynamic stability of the system. The formation of photon pairs manifests itself in all optical effects in excited media. The possibility of propagation of quasi-resonant electromagnetic radiation in dissipative media at a finite temperature with a small absorption is predicted to be unrelated to the laser effect.

Yu-Ching, Chou

*Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1*,
,
21 November 2019,
Page 102-113

The Kerr–Newman metric describes a special rotating charged mass and is the most general solution for the asymptotically stable “black-hole” solution in the Einstein–Maxwell equations in general relativity. Because these are nonlinear partial differential equations, it is difficult to find an exact analytical solution other than spherical symmetry. This study presented a new derivation of the Kerr–Newman metric which is an extension of the authors’ previous research. Using the ellipsoid symmetry of space-time in the Kerr metric, an ellipsoidal coordinate transformation method was performed and the Kerr–Newman metric was more intuitively obtained. The relation with this method and Newman–Janis algorithm was discussed.

José A. Ibáñez-Mengual, Ramón P. Valerdi-Pérez, José A. García-Gamuz

*Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1*,
,
21 November 2019,
Page 114-129

This paper aims to determine the calorific power of a heating source and to establish an experimental procedure to measure heat transmission coefficients in low heat conductive materials. In our case, the source is a laterally isolated aluminum cylinder, which incorporates an internal electrical resistance for controlling the heat, adjusted to a preset temperature. We describe a simple model, based on the resolution of the differential equation for the heat balance, incorporating two gain and loss coefficients and its application to the steady response achieved, when a disk shaped plastic sample is placed between the heating element and a glass vessel with water, treating the set as a composite wall. In this way the calorific power values and the thermal conductivities of the plastic disk sample are obtained for temperatures ranging from 30 to 70°C.

B. T. Utelbayev, E. N. Suleimenov, A. B. Utelbayeva

*Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1*,
,
21 November 2019,
Page 130-142

The experimentally determined temperature of a substance is a comparative value relative to the extensive property of another system (thermometers, thermocouples, etc.) taken as the initial measurement standard or reference point. Therefore, the concept of temperature, which we face at first glance seems to be a very simple value, but in fact it is a complex parameter that characterizes the state of the system at the same time on the micro-and macroscopic formations. When considering the properties of substances at the macro level, as a rule, there are many difficulties with the interpretation of micro-phenomena, which is due to the lack of understanding and specific ideas about micro-objects. In turn, micro-objects are constituent elements of macro-objects. This leads to an incomplete understanding of the processes occurring in macro objects. Meanwhile, the micro-macroscopic properties of substances are manifested at the same time and are combined by quantitative and qualitative characteristics: The amount of internal energy, temperature, mole, Planck’s, Boltzmann’s constants etc. At the same time, the value of temperature, which is estimated by comparing extensive properties of measuring instruments is considered the result of the chaotic motion of molecules of system as stated in statistical physics. This work reveals the physical meaning of the concept "temperature" and describes the nature of elementary carriers of heat and its relationship to temperature. The calculated energy of the portable "theplotron" and the mass of photons and "theplotron", which represent a kind of "electromagnetic particles". These particles take part in the implementation of the Coulomb electric interaction and prevents annihilation; are in combination with electrons and the nature of their motion determines the thermal, optical, magnetic, electrical and other properties. The frequency of pulsations of "electromagnetic particles" determines the physical meaning of the temperature and the internal pressure of the system. The pulsation of the particles creates a standing wave, and their directed collective motion in a free form represents a seeming traveling wave which is taken as an "electromagnetic wave".

Christian Nwachioma, J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

*Theory and Applications of Physical Science Vol. 1*,
,
21 November 2019,
Page 143-151

Deterministic chaos can exhibit robust dynamic behaviors such as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. The behaviors have warranted diverse engineering uses, which usually entail electronic hardware implementation. In this study, the circuit realization and its corresponding implementation by means of analog electronic components are presented for the polynomial chaotic Sun system. The system has twelve terms, twelve parameters and six nonlinear terms. A procedure is detailed for converting the chaotic parameters into corresponding electronic parameters such as the circuital resistances. Circuit realization of the system is simulated by PSPice-A/D. Next, the circuit is implemented by means of analog electronic components such as operational ampliﬁers and multipliers. Signals from electronic experiments are compared with numerical simulations.