Dr. Salisu Muhammad Lawan,
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering , Kano University of Science and Technology (KUST) Wudil , Nigeria.


ISBN 978-93-89562-24-8 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-89562-25-5 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/crst/v2


This book covers all areas of science and technology. The contributions by the authors include SAM children, nutrition management, diet counseling, soil quality, carbon stock, forest land use, cultivated land use, sustainable land use, chickpea, genotypes, hybridization, genetic variability and heritability, Nagaon district, groundwater, Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone, GIS, metal matrix composites, nanodiamonds, mechanical alloying, electrochemical nanocomposite coating, automation, drying rate, economical dryer, farmers, quality parameters, rotary heat exchanger, heat transfer, pressure drop, simulation, bifurcation, MHD, porous channel, perturbation method, similarity transformation, steady Flow, antioxidant activity, GC-MS, FT-IR,  injection moulding, Taguchi method, robust design, signal to noise ratio, TRD-RSM, foundry sand, bioleaching, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, ICP-OES, heavy metals etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of science and technology.


Therapeutic Nutrition Evaluation and Management of Acute and Severe Malnourished Children

S. Bhoi, G. Sharma, A. Joglekar

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 1-8

Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) is a major health problem in children between the age groups of 1-5 years of age. According to National Family Health Survey-3, more than 132 million children below 5 are suffering from SAM in our India. The facilities available in hospitals and other health services are not appropriate to combat this major health issue. 

The present study was aimed to assess the impact of hospital diet on health status of 253 selected SAM children who were admitted for their rehabilitation in the nutrition ward of a private hospital in Raipur city. All the children were examined thoroughly and necessary investigations including weight, height, BMI, hemoglobin, chest x-ray, etc. were taken to assess the nutritional status of children. The overall results after the treatment show an increase in health status. The result reveals that out of 253 SAM children (39.5%) children had gained weight>10 g/kg/day. It can be proved that continuous follow-up parent’s dietary counseling and monitoring of nutritional status will give better results for SAM children. It can be concluded that ready to eat food rich in protein and calorie with micronutrients can be supplemented to SAM children to overcome the problem of malnutrition in India. There is a need to study the impact of RTE (ready to eat food) under NRHM (national rural health mission) at regular intervals. All the hospitalized children should be continuously monitored and their parents should be counseled.

Development of Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced with Non-agglomerated Nanodiamonds

V. A. Popov, T. F. George

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 9-24

This paper addresses the production of metal matrix nanocomposites with non-agglomerated reinforcing nanodiamond particles. The main method of producing nanocomposites is mechanical alloying. Based on an investigation of this ball milling process with the use of a mixture of different colored copper and brass particles, appropriate technological conditions of the treatment are determined. It is shown that an increased volume fraction of nanodiamonds inside copper matrix under some regimes can lead to enhanced oxidation of the matrix. The technological conditions are established to allow for the production of composites with non-agglomerated uniformly-distributed nanodiamond reinforcing particles without any oxidation. It is possible to use copper matrix composites as bulk and for the development of electrochemical composite coatings. For aluminum matrix composites, differential scanning calorimetry have shown that the reaction between the components to produce aluminum carbide starts at 400-450°C (for macromaterials, such reaction starts at 1200°C). It is shown that nanodiamonds could be efficient in reinforcing particles in composite materials in workable temperature interval.

Slope Position and Land Use Effect on Select Soil Properties, Quality and Carbon Stock in Surface Soils at Afaka Forest Area, Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

Odunze Azubuike Chidowe, Hamza Haruna, E. Y. Oyinlola

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 25-37

Population increase and the need to achieve food security; especially in Nigeria, necessitated encroachment into forests and marginal lands for agricultural land uses in the Savanna ecologies. However, tropical soils are inherently fragile and prone to rapid degradation under intensive agriculture; especially when soil cover is removed and the soil tilled conventionally. Also, Savanna Alfisols are low in inherent fertility, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, dominated by low activity clays and sesquioxides. The increasing incidence of soil degradation and nutrient impoverishment of the savanna ecologies resulted in decreasing soil quality, agricultural production and increasing farmer food insecurity that generated interest in the need to evaluate effect of slope and Land use on soil properties, quality and carbon stock on Afaka soils in Nigerian Guinea Savanna. Data generated were analyzed using ANOVA and significant means were determined using Duncan multiple range test (DMRT). Results obtained reveal that cultivation activities and erosion accounted for increased silt (19.10 %) in cultivated areas than forest areas (14.89%), while sand fractions (54.44%) dominate separates in the Forest and the cultivated land uses. Upper slope positions had the highest sand content (71.67%), followed by lower slope with 68.00%, then middle (67.67%) slopes. Silt contents at the middle slope positions were significantly higher than at upper (15.33%) and Lower slope Position (17.00%) and clay values increased in the lower slope terrains. Also, organic carbon varied significantly between the land use types and slope position on the toposequence. At the forest areas, organic carbon was 10.2 gkg-1 and higher significantly than Cultivated fields (8.2 gkg-1). At the upper slope fields under cultivation, organic carbon value was 8.7 gkg-1 and was significantly lower than Middle slope (9.60 gkg-1) and Lower slope terrains (6.30 gkg-1). Under Forest land use also, Middle slope terrains had significantly higher organic carbon content than Upper slope terrains. The high Carbon stock of the forest middle slope terrain (1.77 tCha-1), followed by forest land use type would discourage global warming and climate change within the Afaka environment However, carbon stock in forest Land use type in Afaka areas (1.41 tCha-1) was significantly higher than cultivated land use types (1.21 tCha-1). At cultivated slope terrains, middle slopes retained significantly higher SOC (1.37 tCha-1) than upper and lower slope terrains. Considering soils for prime quality, soils under forest lower slope terrain ranked best quality (SQ1; prime quality) for sustainable cultivation purposes, followed by cultivated middle slope and forest land use type that ranked SQ2. Cultivated upper slope soils ranked least (SQ6) in quality for use in crop production, while cultivated lower slope and cultivated land use type soils ranked SQ5. However, increasing loss of forests to intensive cultivation activities without adequate soil management practices would portend increase in global warming and climate change in the study area.

Analysis of Genetic Parameters in Chickpea

Mahamaya Banik, G. N. Deore, Ajit Kumar Mandal, L. B. Mhase

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 38-45

Diverse genotype is the key for any plant selection or hybridization programme; to develop a noble type so as to increase its utility to human. It is not only improves the genetics background of the cultivar but also improve farmers income by reducing losses due to insect-pest and disease attack etc. In view of regards, a research was conducted to analyze the variability and heritability genetic parameter of sixty diverse genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for 10 different characters. The crop sown in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with two replications during Rabi Season 2014-15 at Pulses Improvement Project, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidhyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra, India. The evaluation shows that highest range of variability was present for number of pods per plant followed by days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, 100 seed weight, days to maturity. The highest estimates of heritability along with genetic advance as per cent of mean were recorded for number of pods per plant, days to 50 per cent, 100 seed weight and plant height characters. The ANOVA indicated the prevalence of sufficient genetic variation among the genotypes for all the ten traits. The seed yield per plant and number of pods per plant revealed highest genetic advance expressed as a percentage of mean.

Assessment of Key Ground Water Quality Parameters and Their Mapping Using GIS in Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam, India

I. H. Thakuria, P. P. Hazarika, B. K. Medhi, K. Deka, N. Rahman, N. Baruah

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 46-61

Groundwater is considered as one of major part of the purest forms of water available in nature. Hence, to understand the use of the ground water resources and to get sustainable ground water quality the fundamental characteristics of the groundwater need to be analyzed. In the present study, GIS-based mapping of the groundwater in the central Brahmaputra Valley Zone is done with a view to observe the various quality characters. The results of this investigation could be used by decision-makers for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. The groundwater pH of the district was found to be within the desirable limit as recommended by WHO but 67.30% sample covering 79% of the total geographical area of the district was slightly alkaline in nature. Groundwater quality parameters that surpassed the desirable limit recommended by WHO, were electrical conductivity and nitrate which accounted for 41.22% and 0.79% of the total samples. Total Dissolved Solids, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate and nitrate in groundwater were recorded within the desirable limit of WHO and thus could be considered as safe. Spatial autocorrelation run for all the quality parameters with respect to their positions and values over the entire district envisaged the possibilities of forming different pattern namely CLUSTER for pH, EC, As, F, Fe, Al, Mn,HCO3, RANDOM for Mg, Ca, CO3, NO3, SO4 and DISPERSED for TDS. GIS-aided mapping of groundwater quality parameters embracing their category wise spatial distribution, area, maximum and minimum values, surface autocorrelation of observed values could give a better idea to opt for suitable need-based management strategy for the entire district.

Development of an Economical Automatic Temperature and Time Control Multipurpose Dryer

P. A. Obasa, O. C. Ademosun

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 62-80

Many dryers exist in the open markets for drying several agricultural crops in Africa. Most of them have their limitations and complexities. The significant ones are expensive and cannot be afford by the peasant farmers. Those developed locally are inefficient especially where temperature control is required. There is need to develop appropriate systems that will ensure effective temperature control without compromising the quality parameters of products. Time control is also a challenge due to unstable power supply which result to calculation of drying time not the same as working hours of the dryer for existing dryers. A digital microprocessor base temperature control and time control dryer has been developed and fabricated for drying any type of biomaterial at varying temperature range using locally available materials. The fabricated temperature and time control multipurpose dryer was test to ascertain its performance, the preset temperature control the ON/OFF the heating helix in the drying chamber within room temperature to 110°C and the temperature control was compared with three different types of digital temperature meters. The time control was also tested to clock only when the dryer is powered. Some selected biomaterial (Cassava, maize, cocoyam) with moisture content between 13 - 26% MCwb was dried for an average time of about 6-8 hours at 60°c temperature and the air velocity of the drying process was 0.4-0.75 m/s2.

Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer Analysis for Satisfactory Operating Conditions of Rotary Heat Exchangers

P. C. Mioralli, E. Avallone, P. H. Palota, P. S. G. Natividade, C. E. Luizete

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 81-97

A computational analysis in a rotary heat exchanger subject to pre-established mass flow rate is performed. The heat transfer rate, the pressure drop and the outlet temperatures of gas streams are calculated from different matrix porosity values. The fluid flow and the convective heat transfer coefficient are determined from correlations. The total heat transfer is obtained using the Effectiveness-NTU method specific to rotary heat exchangers. Three typical rotary exchangers with both streams under the laminar flow regime are investigated. A range of porosity values that provide good thermal exchange and low pressure drop in the equipment is chosen for each examined equipment. The behavior of the outlet temperatures of each gas stream as function of porosity is also analyzed. The results show that the porosity ranges shorten when the typical pressured drop values for each rotary exchanger are introduced in the analysis. In addition, the behavior of the outlet temperatures is compatible with the behavior of the heat transfer rate as the porosity changes.

Fluid Flow in Bifurcating Rectangular Porous Systems under Magnetic Field Influence

W. I. A. Okuyade, T. M. Abbey

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 98-116

Steady MHD fluid flow in a bifurcating rectangular porous channel is presented. The governing nonlinear equations are solved analytically by the methods of similarity transformation and regular perturbation series expansions. Expressions for the temperature, concentration and velocity are obtained and analyzed graphically. The results show that increase in bifurcation angle and Grashof numbers increase the transport velocity, whereas the increase in the magnetic field parameter decreases it. Furthermore, it is seen that an increase in bifurcation angle increases the temperature of the flow.

Phytochemical Analysis, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Clitoria ternatea leaves of Blue and White Flower

J. Anbumalarmathi, A. Divya, S. Aruna Sharmili

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 117-132

The present study was conducted to screen the phytochemical constituents, identifying the compounds present by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS), functional groups present by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT- IR) in the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Clitoria ternatea white flower, explicit the antibacterial activity, antioxidant assay of using methanol and ethyl acetate leaves extract of Clitoria ternatea blue and white flower. Clitoria ternatea leaves of blue flower possess 7.5% of total ash whereas leaves of white flower possess 8.5%. The phytochemical analysis revealed that leaves of blue flower contain alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, glycosides, coumarins, catechol, quinines, gum and mucilage while, in leaves of white flower had alkaloids, glycosides, catechol, gum and mucilage were present. A total of 8 compounds such as 1- Decanol, 2- ethyl, 1- Eicosanol, Sulphurous acid octadecyl 2- propyl ester, Eicosanoic acid, L- (+)- ascorbic acid 2,6- dihexadecanoate, Sulphurous acid, pentadecyl 2-propyl ester, Oleic acid, 1-Hexyl-2 nitrocyclohexane were detected in the ethyl acetate leaves extract of C. ternatea white flower using GC-MS. FT-IR analysis of the same had  characteristic bands at 2983.88 cmˉ1 indicating the presence of C-H stretching. The ethyl acetate leaves extract of white flower C. ternatea had antibacterial and antifungal activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. kruzi. The total phenolic content of methanolic leaf extract of C. ternatea blue flower was 25 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/ g Dry Weight (mg GAE / g DW), and leaf of white flower was 18 mg GAE / g DW. The total flavonoid content of methanolic leaf extract of C. ternatea blue flower was 10 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g Dry Weight (mg QE / g DW), and leaf of white flower was 5 mg QE/g DW. Maximum scavenging activity of 86.6% was observed in leaf ethyl acetate extract of blue flower (DPPH assay). Maximum scavenging activity of 82% (H2O2 assay) and 95% (total antioxidant) was observed in the ethyl acetate leaf extract of white flower.  

Evaluation and Optimization of Performance Characteristics of Wood Ash Particles Reinforced PP Resin (WARPP)

C. C. Ihueze, P. S. Aguh

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 133-156a

This study focused on Evaluation and Optimization of Performance Characteristics of Wood Ash Particles Reinforced Polypropylene Resin (WARPP). Taguchi robust design was used to plan a minimum number of experiments needed to optimize the performance characteristics of WARPP while response surface method (RSM) was used to model and optimize performance characteristics of WARPP. The performance characteristics or responses of WARPP for the mechanical properties are the result of the interaction among the input variables – namely, particle size, volume fraction, injection force and operating temperature. The optimum values of the mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and hardness strength) of WARPP are 21.19MPa, 50.09MPa and 521.84MPa, respectively with their corresponding input variables values of 0.25 mm, 1.40 mm and 1.40 mm for particle size, 5.0%, 5.0% and 60% volume fraction, 120 ton, 200 ton and 200 ton injection force and 185ºC, 215ºC and 215ºC operating temperature. The response model of WARPP for tensile, flexural and hardness are representable with nonlinear power law model and second order polynomial models respectively. Further investigations are recommended for testing WARPP under higher temperature applications to ascertain its performance at elevated temperatures.


Microorganisms Used in Bioleaching Metals Converting Waste Foundry Sands into Soil Suitable for Growing Crops

S. Vijayakumari, Elango Padmasini

Current Research in Science and Technology Vol. 2, , 17 October 2019, Page 157-161

Metals can be leached either directly (physical contact between microorganisms and solid material) or indirectly. The removal of metals from these industrial wastes brings out detoxification of the residues and thus improves the quality of the environment. The waste foundry sand was analyzed for the presence of toxic metals, as the plant uptakes these toxic metals through their food chain which in turn may be harmful to the human beings.