Dr. Mohammad Reza Naroui Rad,
Department of Horticultural Crops Research, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Sistan, Iran.


ISBN 978-93-89562-14-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-89562-15-6 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/atias/v2


This book covers all areas of agricultural sciences. The contributions by the authors include African egg plant; harvesting techniques; financial profitability; smallholder farmers; phenology; seed; stomata; tree; C. zizanioides; urban dumpsite soil; industrial waste soil; mechanic village soil; irrigative soils of dry subtropical zones; quantity of microorganisms; crop rotation; constant (permanent) cultures; coefficient of mineralization; grain maize; grain quality; postharvest losses; cucumber; nematicide; oxamyl; browse plants; sheep intake; weight gain; rural communities; agricultural development; rural transformation; genotype vs environment interaction; oilseed; floriculture; Brassica juncea L.; drought; deficit irrigation; mutualism; plant growth; halophyte plants; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus; saline reject; watershed sediment yield; semiarid region; sediment delivery ratio; erosion etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of agricultural sciences.


Applications and Potentialities of Safflower Culture (Carthamus tinctorius) for Exploration in Brazil: A Brief Review

Gérsia Gonçalves de Melo, Djayran Sobral Costa, Luana Camilla Cordeiro Braz, Yrlânia de Lira Guerra, Islan Diego Espíndula de Carvalho, Demerson Arruda Sanglard

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 1-18

Carthamus tinctorius L. (asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant that has several applications, from a production of oil of excellent quality to the market of ornamental plants. It has broad adaptability, even in environments with limited water resources and nutrient deficiency, making it a promising crop for the semi-arid regions of Brazil. However, safflower does not have economic expression in the country, mainly due to the unavailability of information on agricultural management techniques and market strategies. Several safflower genotypes were evaluated for cultivation in Pernambuco state forest middle zone as well as its ornamental potential grown in protected environment. In this review will be discussed the main characteristics and applications of safflower. In addition, will be highlighted the main results of those works which may contribute to promote the cultivation of safflower in Brazil. For cultivation in the Pernambuco state forest middle zone, the genotypes studied showed good productive signs. In the evaluation in protected environment, it was observed that the genotypes presented ornamental potential, exhibiting precocity, beauty and durability of the flowers. In addition, the divergence of materials for characters of interest characterizes them as promising for inclusion in breeding programs.

Integrated Harvesting Techniques for African Egg Plant (Solanum macrocarpon L., cv. Igbagba)

David O. Ojo, Joseph T. Atobatele, Jonas N. Chianu

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 19-26

Aim: This study elucidated the influence of harvesting height and frequency on concurrent seed and shoots production of the African Eggplant, Solanum macrocarpon L., cv. Igbagba/Igbo. The overall aim was to use the outcome to make recommendations that would enable African resource poor farmers secure the much needed increase in income for improved livelihoods.

Experimental Design: The experiment was a three (harvesting heights of 0.04 m, 0.08 m and 0.12 m) by five (harvesting frequencies of 1x per 1,2,3,4 and 5 weeks) factorial treatment arrangements fitted into randomized complete block with 4 replications. There was a control treatment which was harvested at ground level six weeks after planting for vegetative yield estimation and a check which was left for seeding without cutting. Net plot size was 5 m x 5 m (25 m2).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between April to November 2004 on the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) Ibadan, Nigeria commercial vegetable production fields.

Methodology: Cumulative shoot fresh weight over the cutting period gave the shoot yield per plant. S. macrocarpon fruits were harvested, processed for seed and the seed weighed at 12% moisture content. Seed and shoot yield values were based on current NIHORT [National Horticultural Research Institute, Nigeria] prices of Screenshot_29.png450.00 per kilogram seed and Screenshot_210.png10.00 per kilogram shoot (US$1 = Screenshot_211.png80 at time of data collection, Screenshot_212.png is Nigerian Currency). Harvest index was calculated as seed weight/shoot weight which indicates changes in the pattern of dry matter partitioning into seed and shoot. Cutting Use Efficiency (CUE) was defined as the relative agronomic efficiency of using cutting over the control. Data were subjected to analyses of variance by the procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 2005) using mean of 10 plants per treatment plot. Marginal revenue (MR) equals field price per kilogram multiplied by average yield (kg/ha) where field price is the market value of one kilogram of the crop. Marginal cost (MC) included those costs that are affected by the alternative treatment being considered (costs such as planting, land purchase, land preparation and transport that do not differ across treatments will be incurred regardless of which treatments is used). Data from both seasons (long cropping season and short cropping season) for each treatment were combined because there were no seasonal significant differences. Means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% significance.

Results: Shows that harvesting at 0.08 m above ground level was optimal and significantly highest for leaf, stem, shoot, seed and total yields except at 0.12 m above ground level for seed production. The result of financial profitability analysis shows that harvesting 0.08 m above ground level and fortnightly was most profitable for leaf, shoot and total yields compared to all the treatment combinations. Harvesting 0.12 m above ground level and monthly, however, was most profitable for seed production when compared to all treatments combinations.

Conclusion: The study concluded noting that integrated harvesting techniques for shoot (leaf + stem) and seed production proved economically viable and optimize resource use efficiency better than growing S. macrocarpon sole either for shoot or seed.

Impact of Auto Exhaust Pollution on Trees

Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Shafiq, Mohammad Athar, Muhammad Kabir, Zia-Ur-Rehman Farooqi

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 27-53

Environmental pollution and its impact on living organisms is worldwide problem. The pollutants discharged from the automobile activities are particulate matter, heavy metals (Pb and Cd), carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and oxides producing toxic effects on plant growth. The other common effects are reduced yield of flowers, branch length, leaf area and reduction in seed germination percentage. This book chapter provide some information about the impact of auto exhaust pollution on plant growth. The importance of tree in the urban environment cannot be ignore. A number of studies on the effects of air pollution on tree growth have been carried out by researchers over the past many years in developed and in developing countries. Trees play an important role in maintaining the ecological balance, pollution reduction and lessening the burden of pollutant by absorbing pollutants. However, trees in urban cities are growing in a severe stressful environment due to incomplete burning of fossil fuel and badly maintained vehicles resulting shorten life span of plant. The growth of plants could be affected by several reasons and one of them is the presence of toxic pollutants derived from the auto vehicular exhaust emission.

Integrated Postharvest Practices to Reduce Losses in Maize Storage for Smallholders

Issah Sugri, Mutari Abubakari, John K. Bidzakin, Osei-Agyeman Yeboah

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 54-62

In spite of advances in grain storage, as high as 8 to 23% postharvest losses in maize storage have been reported in Ghana. These losses emanate from poor postharvest practices and use of indigenous storage methods, which are inexpensive to construct and maintain but provide poor protection against biological, physical and environmental hazards. The objective of this study was to demonstrate best practices to reduce losses in maize storage. A study unit involved 50 kg of grain stored in jute bags, polypropylene bags, PICS bags and plastic drums. Each unit was treated with recommended doses of Actellic Super 5EC (80 g Pirimiphos-methyl and 15 g Permithrin/L), Phostoxin (Aluminum phosphate) and a control. From this study, losses of 2.2 to 5.8% were incurred in grain stored in PICS bags and plastic drums as compared to 7.2 to 21.7% losses when stored in jute and polypropylene bags during 12 months of storage. Due to differences in varieties, harvest timing and drying operations among farmers, the use of grain protectants should be considered where prolong storage of 8 to 12 months is anticipated; particularly if jute and polypropylene bags are  to be used.  Treating grain with chemicals may not be necessary when using PICS bags or plastic drums during 1 year of storage. However, the initial condition of grain prior to storage must be examined in this case.

Feed Intake, Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Moringa oleifera, Gliricidia sepium or Cassava Fodder as Supplements to Panicum maximum

A. A. Fadiyimu, J. A. Alokan, A. N. Fajemisin, G. E. Onibi

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 63-73

The performance and carcass characteristics of West African dwarf (WAD) sheep fed Panicum maximum supplemented with Moringa oleifera, Gliricidia sepium or cassava fodder, were investigated in a randomized complete block and completely randomized design experiments respectively. Twenty four growing WAD sheep (10.7 kg average live weight) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments: 1: 100% P. maximum (control), 2: 75% P. maximum + 25% M. oleifera, 3: 75% P. maximum + 25% G. sepium, 4: 75% P. maximum + 25% Cassava leaves. Dry matter (DM) intake (g/kgW0.75/day) ranged between 74.6 for treatment 4 and 92.7 for treatment 3. Crude protein (CP) intake in treatment 3 was higher than in treatments 1 and 4. Growth rate ranged between 6.53 g/day to 12.74 g/day for treatments 1 and 4 respectively while treatments 2 and 4 had better feed conversion ratio than treatment 1. Average dressing percentage was 33.9% and there was no significant difference in the carcass characteristics among the various treatments. It was concluded that Moringa oleifera is a suitable alternative to Gliricidia sepium as supplement in small ruminant diets.

Comparatives Effectiveness of Two VetiverGrass Species (Chrysopogon zizanioides and Chrysopogon nigritana) for Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

M. O. Adigun, K. S. Are

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 74-80

The study was carried out at the screen house of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R&T) to determine the responses of two vetiver grass cultivars (Chrysopogon zizanioides and Chrysopogon nigritana) on heavy metal contaminated soils, and their potential for remediation. The experiment was a 3 x 4 factorial experiment arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated thrice. The two vetiver grass cultivars and no vetiver grass were evaluated on  soils (soils from mechanic village, urban dumpsite, industrial waste site and an agrarian soil). The absorption of metal contaminants: lead, cadmium, and zinc, by the two vetiver cultivars was determined in all treatments. In mechanic village soil, C. zizanioides absorbed more of zinc than C. nigritana with 7.0% and 5.9% reduction in lead levels respectively. In industrial waste soil, C. zizanioides and C. nigritana  reduced the zinc levels in the soil by  27.6% and 18.8% , respectively. Also, in urban dumpsite soil, the respective  zinc reductions by C. nigritana and C. zizanioides,  were 13.7% and 6.1% by . For cadmium, C. nigritana absorbed more of cadmium than C. zizanioides in mechanic village soil, with percentage reduction reductions amount to 30.5% and 26.2% by C. nigritana and C. zizanioides, respectively. In urban dumpsite soil, there were percentage reductions of 7.1% and 6.8% by C. nigritana and C. zizanioides. Lead absorption by C. nigritana in mechanic village soil, was higher than C. zizanioides with percentage reduction of 43.4% while C. zizanioides reduced lead level by 36.3%. In urban dumpsite soil, lead levels in the soil were reduced to 10.2% and 6.3% by C. zizanioides and C. Nigritana, respectively. However, in industrial waste soil, C. zizanioides reduced lead level in the soil by 39.2%, whereas C. nigritana reduced it 29.9% Chrysopogon nigritana, the locally sourced variety, proved to have the great potential of phytoextracting the heavy metals in the contaminated soils than the exotic cultivar (C. zizanioides).

Sustainable Options for Scrap Tire in Vietnam: From Waste to Energy

Pham Thi Anh

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 81-89

The mass flow of waste tires grows with the increasing a number of vehicles on the roads.. This trend also holds in Vietnam. Currently, the waste-tires are collected, reused and recycled in several ways. This study carried out an investigation of waste tire generation collection, reuse and recycling in the South-East of Vietnam.  Pyrolysis approach had been applied in some countries and Vietnam now a day. The study had also use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method with Simapro solfware (Version to calculate and evaluate the environmental impacts from the waste tires pyrolysis process. The results found that there are large savings from waste tire pyrolysis in terms of material and emissions, due to the substitution of pyrolysis products. The findings from this study are: Waste tire is not completed as waste, it can be seen as a byproduct which can be reused or applied as an input material to become other useful products. A sustainable approach for waste tires, based on collection, reuse, recycling, and utilization of scrap tire and appropriate management, can achieve the goal of almost zero discharge of waste tires.  

Changes of Microbial Community in the Irrigative Grey-Brown and Grey-Meadow Soils under Vegetable Cultures of Dry Subtropical Zone

Naila Orudzheva Hidayat, Magerram Babayev Pirverdi, Gunel Asgerova Farhad

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 90-104

Introduction: Soils contain a very high, but mostly unknown biodiversity, and soil biology remains an under studied topic. Soil organisms are a key factor for soil development and in turn depend on soils as a habitat. Microorganisms carrying out metabolic processes remove nutrients from the ecosystem and use them to build new cells. Microorganisms are the backbone of all ecosystems. Microbes are decomposers, with the ability to recycle nutrients from other organisms' waste products.

Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of microorganisms in different types of agricultural soils.

Study Design: Comparative analysis of quantity of microorganisms in a crop rotation and constant (permanent) in a dry subtropical zone in different types of soils.

Methodology: Microorganisms quantity has been defined by (microorganisms total quantity meat-peptone-agaric (MPA) and starchy-ammoniac-agaric (SAA), actinomycetes starchy - agaric- agaric (SAA) and microscopic fungus quantity have been defined on Chapek agaric environment on the basis of the method received in the Institute of Microbiology of Moscow.

Results: The results showed that the quantity of microorganisms in a crop rotation was more, than permanent cultivation of these cultures. A mineralization of organic substances in soils under constant cultures occurred more intensively, than in a crop rotation.

Conclusion: Including in a crop rotation of legume cultures (Lucerne, haricot, bean) increases quantity of microorganisms, also slows down intensity mineralization of organic substances. This study showed that the soil microbial metabolic functional diversity had high variability. The number of bacteria in the irrigated meadow-serozemic soils was smaller than in the gray-brown soils, and the number of actinomycetes was on the contrary higher in the grey-brown and meadow-serozemic soils. The meadow-serozemic soils were characterized by the maximal intensity of the mineralization of the plant residues among the studied soils.  

Investing in Rural Communities of Nigeria for Agricultural Development: A Strategy for Reducing Rural-Urban Youth Migration

E. N. Mbah, A. J. Attah, N. E. Amah

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 105-110

Rural-urban youth migration is increasing in developing countries, particularly Nigeria. This has resulted in loss of labour for agricultural production. Distress push factors such as lack of rural credit facilities, unemployment and rural poverty are most important contributory factors while demand pull factors such as perception of high wages from urban employment are also dominant. Decline in food production in developing countries such as Nigeria can be linked to the impart of rural-urban youth migration as well as other variable factors such as economic, soil quality, ecology, climatic conditions, socio-cultural setting and poor farm management. Rural-urban youth migration also reduces the rate of agricultural and rural development. Efforts are needed by Nigerian government at all levels in encouraging rural youths to remain in agriculture through adequate provision of physical and social infrastructure as well as creating an enabling environment devoid of insecurity. This will ensure growth of the agricultural sector and increase rural productivity.

Nematicidal Efficacy of Fluensulfone against False Root-knot Nematode (Nacobbus aberrans) in Cucumber Crop under Field Conditions

José Alonso Calvo-Araya, Martha Orozco-Aceves

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 111-118

The present study was carried out to compare the efficacy of a nematicide of new generation for the control of the false root-knot nematode; Nacobbus aberrans, in cucumber crop (Cucumis sativus L.) under field conditions. The experiment was set up under a randomized complete block design with four replications. Six treatments were assessed for control of N. aberrans: four doses of fluensulfone, one of the nematicide oxamyl and a control with no application of nematicides. Ten days before transplanting, nematicides were applied in a single application via irrigation systems. Higher control under field conditions was obtained with the application of fluensulfone at a dose of 2.75 L.ha-1. The lowest final population densities of N. aberrans in cucumber crop were recorded in the plots treated with fluensulfone at the dose of 2.25 L.ha-1, with an average of 6.25 juveniles, and the lowest galling index was observed in plots treated with fluensulfone at the same dose, with a galling index of 2.1. The results indicated that application of fluensulfone to cucumber crop can provide good control of N. aberrans.

Interrelationship and Cause - Effect of Morphological Traits with Grain Yield and Oil Content among Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss) Genotypes under Non- irrigated and Irrigated Condition

Khushboo Chandra, Anil Pandey, S. B. Mishra, Kavita .

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 119-133

Water scarcity is a venomous upshot of climate change and is one of the sternest factors restraining global crop productivity. In order to study association and cause-effect of shortage in irrigation on some morphological and quality traits on yield, an experiment accommodating 20 genotypes of Indian  mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss), was conducted in Randomised Complete Block Design (RBCD) from various Rapeseed & Mustard centres  located across country, randomly in three replications  during Rabi 2016-17, one condition subjected to drought (devoid of irrigation) inside  the Rainout shelter under residual moisture condition and another situation with  normal irrigated field condition at research farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur. Genotypic correlations for grain yield and other characters were invariably higher than phenotypic correlations indicating indicated less influence of environment. Earliness in flowering (-0.010; -0.256) and maturity (-0.335; -0.185), Secondary branches per plant (0.267; 0.169), Siliqua on primary mother axis (0.162; 0.079), Length of primary axis (0.006; 0.275), Siliqua density (0.244; 0.189) and Biological yield (0.444*;0.411*) also had shown positive correlation with grain yield per plot at phenotypic level under both non- irrigated and irrigated condition indicated that improvement in these morphological parameters indicated genotypes with early flowering and maturity coupled with more secondary branches with  more siliqua accommodated by longer primary mother axis with increasing density of siliqua along with high biological yield and will ultimately enhance the grain yield.

Phytoosociological Survey of Caatinga Trail under Extensive Grazing in Patos-PB Municipality

Sérvio Túlio Pereira Justino, Roberta Patrícia de Sousa Silva, Amanda de Lira Freitas, Maria José de Holanda Leite, José Lenildo Barbosa Leite da Silva

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 134-141

The caatinga is a typical Brazilian semi-arid vegetation, where dominant shrub species and some dispersed arboreal individuals are found, in addition to the marked presence of cacti.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the arboreal-shrub component, analyzing the floristic composition and phytosociology in caatinga area under extensive grazing in the Paraíba hinterland. The study area extends over 60 ha, and presents vegetation of the caatinga type with the presence of extensive cattle grazing. The vegetation data were obtained using the simple random sampling method, with plots with a standard size of 20 x 20 m, and randomly arranged 15 sample units. In each sample unit were measured all living or dead individuals, with Chest Height Circumference (CAP) ≥ 6 cm as well as total height of each individual. There were 1285 individuals belonging to 9 families, 16 species, 15 genera. The Fabaceae family obtained the largest number of individuals and species, with the Cenostigma bracteosum species being the most important, with 650 individuals. The first class of diameter, concentrated the largest number of individuals with 627 individuals (48.8%). Regarding height distribution, it was observed that 1154 individuals (89%) are grouped in the first three classes. the study area presents a low diversity, proving that the extensive grazing has been changing the floristic composition of the area.  

Mycorrhizal Colonization in Atriplex nummularia Lind. Subjected to Desalinizador Reject

C. F. de Melo, E. W. F. Gomes, A. S. Messias

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 142-148

This work has the objective of evaluating the mycorrhizal colonization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus - AMF Claroideoglomus etunicatum in Atriplex nummularia Lind. subjected to desalinator reject. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the headquarters of Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco - IPA, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with the treatments constituted in a factorial scheme of five levels of salinity in AC= 2.86 mS/cm; T1= 11.54 mS/cm; T2= 12.04 mS/cm; T3= 13.13 mS/cm and T4= 14.16 mS/cm, associated with the presence and absence of fungus, presence and absence of nutrient solution, and autoclaved and non-autoclaved soil. 8.0 g of Hoagland & Arnon complete nutrient solution was added every fortnight. After five months, the roots of the treatments were collected and the root colonization was evaluated. It was found that in all treatments the association between Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Atriplex nummularia was beneficial. The correlation was positive for the treatment T4 (Reject + 14 gNaCl) + AMF. Thus, it was observed that salinity had no negative effect on the association as well as on the growth of the vegetable.

Evaluating of Sediment Delivery Ratio on Spatial and Temporal Variabilities in Semiarid Watershed Brazil

Victor Casimiro Piscoya, Vijay P. Singh, José Ramon Barros Cantalice, Moacyr Cunha Filho, Sergio Monthezuma Santoianni Guerra, Cristina dos Santos Ribeiro, Renisson Neponuceno de Araújo Filho, Sandro Augusto Bezerra

Advances and Trends in Agricultural Sciences Vol. 2, , 11 October 2019, Page 149-160

Evaluation of sediment delivery ratio is important for determining watershed sediment yield. Rates of both interrill and rill erosion were calculated under shrub and uncovered Inceptisols conditions and were not observed to the presence by ravines and gullies in the watershed of Jacu River, in a semiarid region, Brazil. Direct measurement campaigns of suspended sediment and bedload were also carried out by means of the US DH–48 for collection of suspended sediment samples and US BLH–84 used to collect samples bed load. The soil loss due to interril erosion under uncovered conditions was equal to 8.43 t ha-1 and was considered high, and the same was true for the values of rill erosion with erodibility equal to 0.0021142 kg N-1 s-1 and critical shear stress (τc) equal to 2.34 Pa. The mean value of sediment delivery ratio of Jacu watershed was equal to 0.165 and ranged from 0.29 in the year 2008 to 0.026 in 2010. This variation was associated with the natural variability of semiarid environment, indicating the necessity of assessment for a longer period to deepen our knowledge of sediment delivery ratio of the Jacu semiarid watershed.