**Editor(s) **

**Dr. Sebahattin Tüzemen**

Professor,

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Turkey.

**ISBN 978-93-90149-54-4 (Print)**

**ISBN 978-93-90149-53-7 (eBook)**

DOI: 10.9734/bpi/nips/v2

*This book covers all areas of physical science. The contributions by the authors include archaeoastronomy; stone calendars; stonehenge; ales stones; nuclear power; uranium mining; depleted uranium; nuclear accidents; waste handling; the DRD method; gravitation; general relativity; Einstein gravity; cosmology; Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs); Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Fabry Perot Scattering Studies (FPSS); Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA); Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC); complex systems; feedback system; system simulator; system modeling; multidisciplinary; photon; speed of light; Maxwell’s theory; gravitation; gravitational quanta; dynamic gravitation; Printed Circuit Board (PCB); traveling wave sensor; high whisker transmission characteristics; anti-interference; consistency; Majorana overlapping energy; p-wave superconductor; conductivity; asymptotic spacetime; theoretical physics; Higgs mechanism; vacuum energy density; fine-structure constant; sommerfeld; physics; cosmology; imaging method; time reversal imaging; nondispersive-lossless media; dispersive-conductive media; channel compensation function; activated charcoal; rice husk; wastewater; adsorbent; agricultural waste; pyrolysis; multispecies calogero model; quasi-exact solvability; gauge transformation; extra-dimension, tachyon; topology; space-time; origin of mass; extra dimensions; space-time; geometric topology etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of physical science.*

### Chapters

Nils-Axel Mörner, Bob G. Lind

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 1-10

We report a novel finding that Stonehenge in England and Ales Stones in Sweden were built with the

same basic geometry and using the megalithic yard as standard of measure. This opens quite new

perspectives into cultural influence, travel and trading in the Bronze Age.

Nils-Axel Mörner

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 11-19

Nuclear power was designed to produce electric power. Each part of the chain from uranium mining to handling of the waste is linked to serious contamination risks, however. Uranium mining is generally linked to local to regional contamination. The fuel production also produces depleted uranium at a ratio of 1:7. The reactors are operating under danger of accidents. Numerous minor accidents and endless temporary shut-downs are occasionally mixed with disastrous accidents. The Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) accidents are notorious. The radioactive contamination from those accidents is still incomprehensible and will keep serious destructions of the environment for centuries to come. The handling of the high-level nuclear waste remains unsolved. Methods proposed in Sweden, Finland and France seem likely to lead to disastrous radioactive contaminations in the future. The only way out of this dilemma seems to be a disposal where the waste, though effectively sealed-off in the bedrock, remains accessible and controllable. At present, the “cost & benefit” balance seems strongly tilted over to the “far too costly side”, however.

Thomas L. Wilson

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 20-28

It is shown in Einstein gravity that the cosmological constant Λ introduces a graviton mass *m*_{g} into the theory, a result that will be derived from the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli problem for a particle falling onto a Kottler-Schwarzschild mass with Λ≠ 0. The value of *m*_{g} is precisely the Spin-2 gauge line appearing on the Λ*-m*_{g}^{2} phase diagram for Spin-2, the partially massless gauge lines introduced by Deser & Waldron in the (*m*_{g}^{2}, Λ) phase plane and described as the Higuchi bound*m*_{g}^{2}= 2Λ/3. Note that this graviton is unitary with only four polarization degrees of freedom (helicities ±2, ±1, but not 0 because a scalar gauge symmetry removes it). The conclusion is drawn that Einstein gravity (EG, Λ≠ 0) is a partially massless gravitation theory which has lost its helicity 0 due to a scalar gauge symmetry. That poses a challenge for gravitational wave antennas as to whether they can measure the loss of this gauge symmetry. Also, given the recent results measuring the Hubble constant *H*_{o} from LIGO-Virgo data, it is then shown that Λ can be determined from the LIGO results for the graviton mass *m*_{g} and *H*_{o}. This is yet another multi-messenger source for determining the three parameters Λ, *m*_{g}, and *H*_{o} in astrophysics and cosmology, at a time when there is much disparity in measurements of *H*_{o}.

Santosh Mani, Samriti Khosla, Pradip Sarawade

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 29-36

In the present study an attempt is made to characterize optical, thermal and mechanical properties ofLiquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) were using various techniques for understanding of their physical behavior. The material used for investigation was synthesized using Finklemann procedure, with proper cross linking density in nematic phase. The material is found to have unique coupling between anisotropic order of liquid crystal component and elasticity of polymer network. The chemical structures were confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fabry Perot Scattering Studies (FPSS), Thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimatory (DSC) were used to study optical and thermal properties. The mechanical properties were studied using force sensor. Our investigation shows that this synthesized LCE has ability of spontaneous change as a function of temperature and mechanical force, which shows it a unique class of soft material.

Deok-Soo Cha

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 37-44

This paper establishes a very important scientific solution to science of complexity for physicists, and presents a multidisciplinary involved physics and engineering. The innovative solution for complex systems presented here is verified on the basis of principles in engineering such as feedback-system analysis using the classical control theory. This paper proposes that a complex system is a closed-loop system with a negative feedback element and is a solvable problem. A complex system can be analyzed using the system analysis theory in control engineering, and its behavior can be realized using a specially designed simulator.

Guido Zbiral

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 45-58

For many years physicists have been engaged on research around the globe in fields such as an explanation for dark matter and dark energy, or the unification of gravitation and electromagnetism, etc., but so far to little avail. One is left with the impression that something might be fundamentally wrong with the premises underlying the doctrine of physics applicable today, which is preventing a solution of these problems from being found. As a possible cause, the author proposes that the gravitation of the photons is not so negligible that it can be completely ignored (although this assumption does not accord with the current state of physics). Although photons can be extremely energetic and each form of energy is inseparably associated with gravitation, it is nevertheless postulated in the Theory of Special Relativity, that the assumed static (baryonic) gravitation of the dynamic photons is vanishingly negligible in comparison with the strong electromagnetic power of photons. For this reason, the assumed static gravitation of photons is completely ignored in that theory, thus as it does not exist.

Departing therefore from the accepted doctrine, he assumes that gravitation might possess a hitherto unknown but important influence on electromagnetism. This paper examines the consequences of this assumption on physics. A precise analysis will lead to the insight that the gravitation of a photon is as dynamic as the photon itself, and therefore must be taken into account with the associated physical considerations. Another Type of gravitation than a static one, e.g. a dynamic gravitation, which oscillates within each photon with the same frequency as the photon itself, was never a subject of discussion. According to the actual doctrine of physics only static gravitation does exist.

Of key importance is the statement that the dynamic gravitation of photons is produced by gravitational quanta, and thus appears in quantised form. Consequently there must exist exactly the same number of gravitational quanta as there are of photons themselves. It is therefore necessary to rethink the physics of photons.

Zewen Li, Tuofu Deng, Xiangjun Zeng, Feng Deng, Lei Shu

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 59-76

Based on analyzing characteristics of Rogowski coil, a new type of PCB traveling wave sensor with simple structure, high linearity, and anti-interference ability is proposed. The sensor has fine physical structure, which can effectively resist external electromagnetic interference by anti-interference measurement. In addition, it can greatly improve mutual inductance based on simple combinations. Simulations show that the new PCB traveling wave sensor can validly extract and deliver traveling wave signal and therefore realize fault location and protection accurately.

D. Schmeltzer

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 77-84

We investigate the effect of the Majorana Fermions which are formed at the boundary of a p-wave superconductor. When the Majorana overlapping energy is ﬁnite we construct the scattering matrix S by maping the Majorana zero mode to Fermions for which coherent states are deﬁned and a path integral is obtained. The path integral is used to compute the scattering matrix in terms of the electrons in the leads. This method is suitable for computing the conductivity. We investigate a chiral Majorana Hamiltonian and show that in the absence of vortices the conductivity vanish. We compute the conductivity for p wave superconductor coupled to two metallic leads we show that when the overlapping energy between the two Majorana fermions is ﬁnite the Andreev Crossed reﬂection conductance is ﬁnite.

Thomas L. Wilson

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 85-96

In spite of tremendous progress in experimental high-energy physics such as the apparent discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN, there exist a number of inconsistencies in theoretical physics which continue to go either unnoticed or unstated. These include the Higgs mechanism itself as well as recent discussions of problems with inflationary cosmology. The subject will be addressed in the context of this author’s recent paper [1] on the requirement for compatible asymptotic states in the study of the cosmological constant problem (CCP). Inconsistency in the Higgs mechanism is eliminated by using scalar-tensor gravity where the scalar field is a gravitational field with zero spin that represents the spontaneous symmetry breaking potential.

Mels Sluyser

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 97-100

The inverse fine-structure constant *1*/α = *137.035* satisfies *1*/α = *11*^{2}+ *4*^{2} + *0.035* = *137.035*, with *11 *being the *11* dimensions of M-theory, *4 *the number of dimensions of Einstein’s space-time, and *0.035* the *3.5* per cent visible Universe. The cosmological information is encrypted along the length of 1/α as a triplet code, with *999 *triplets acting as stop codons.

Bing Li, Bin-Jie Hu

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 101-110

The conventional time reversal imaging (TRI) method builds imaging function by using the maximal value of signal amplitude. In this circumstance, some remote targets are missed (near-far problem) or low resolution is obtained in lossy and/or dispersive media, and too many transceivers are employed to locate targets, which increases the complexity and cost of system. To solve these problems, a novel TRI algorithm is presented in this chapter. In order to achieve a high resolution, the signal amplitude corresponding to focal time observed at target position is used to reconstruct the target image. For disposing near-far problem and suppressing spurious images, combining with cross-correlation property and amplitude compensation, channel compensation function (CCF) is introduced. Moreover, the complexity and cost of system are reduced by employing only ﬁve transceivers to detect four targets whose number is close to that of transceivers. For the sake of demonstrating the practicability of the proposed analytical framework, the numerical experiments are actualized both in nondispersivelossless (NDL) media and dispersive-conductive (DPC) media. Results show that the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of conventional TRI algorithm even under few echo signals.

Lawrence Olusegun Ajala, Valentine Ifenna Onwukeme, Chihurumnanya Ola Oji, Maria-Regina Chekwube Ejiagha

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 111-125

Activated charcoal is used in water, gold and gas purification, metal extraction, medicine, sewage treatment, filters in compressed air, air filters in gas masks and respirators, and many other applications. Due to its high demand, alternative means of production apart from non-renewable sources, is time honoured. In view of these facts, activated charcoal was prepared from rice husk, an agricultural waste, by pyrolysis and chemical activation. The optimum systematic preparation conditions such as the effects of impregnation ratio, concentration, temperature and pyrolysis temperature and time on the efficiency of the product were investigated. The chemically activated charcoal was characterized by measuring porosity, bulk density, pore volume and size, surface area, iodine number, percentage yield, ash and moisture contents. The adsorbent was further characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The performance of activated charcoal prepared as adsorbent of pollutants in wastewater was tested using standard analytical methods. Overall, the results revealed that there was a general significant (*p*<0.05) decrease in the total hardness, alkanility, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, nitrate, total dissolved solid, total suspended solid, total solid, sulphate, nitrate, chloride, and heavy metals in rice husk acivated charcoal treated filtrate when compared to the untreated. Although, values of physicochemical parameters obtained in filtrate fromthe rice husk-based activated charcoal were generally lower than that of the commercial (control), the differences were not statistically significant (*p*>0.05). The results indicated that wastewater treated with the adsorbent were below the recommendations of international standards for maximum limits of effluent to be discharged into sewage, stream and drinking water. The study therefore recommends the use of rice husk-based activated charcoal as an efficient and environmental friendly wastewater treament option.

Ancilla Nininahazwe

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 126-133

Dao Vong Duc, Nguyen Mong Giao

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 134-139

Based on the mechanism for mass creation in the space-time with extradimensions proposed in our previous work (arXiv: 1301.1405 (hep-th) 2013) we consider now the mass spectrum of vector bosons in extradimensions. It is shown that this spectrum is completely determined by some function of compactiﬁcation length and closely related to the metric of extradimensions.

Dao Vong Duc, Nguyen Mong Giao

*New Insights into Physical Science Vol. 2*,
,
17 July 2020,
Page 140-147

We present a mechanism for mass and charge creation based on some speciﬁc assumptions related to space-time extra dimensions. It holds that the existence and the geometric topology of extra dimensions are the origin for creating mass and interaction charge in ordinary 4-dimensional spacetime.