Dr. Suraya Hani Bt Adnan
Associate Professor,
Department Civil Engineering Technology, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia.



ISBN 978-93-90149-02-5 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-90149-08-7 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/etert/v5


This book covers key areas of engineering and technology and other related fields. The contributions by the authors include AC chopper, RDSPWM, SAPWM1, SAPWM2, RTAPWM techniques, input power factor, THD,, FPGA real time controller, autonomous planetary robotics, scientific instruments, robotics, EM exposure, ICNIRP, SAR, socio-demographic, LTE, EBD, DCS, femtocell, macrocell, bandwidth, throughput, 3GPP, weather condition, Naive Bayes, J48, spatial domain technique, transform domain technique, image fusion techniques, segmentation, treatment planning, statistical image fusion technique, recursive standard intensity deviation based histogram equalization, clipped histogram, entropy, green label, green package, online purchase, granite, marble, geochemistry, variable characteristics, unsuitability, potential materials, capacity curves, ductility, fragility curves, performance point, Aluthge Transformation(AL), kollipalayam resrvoir, restoration, biodiversity, bioclean STP, bio-ozolyte, anoyte treatment, DM3730, GS, sprinkling, irrigation systems, outlet pipelines etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of engineering and technology.


Practical Realization of Three Phase Buck AC Converter Feeding Three Phase Star Connected RL Load Using FPGA Real Time Controller: Advanced Study

K. Venkatesha, H. A. Vidya

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 1-12

A three phase bidirectional AC to AC buck converter circuit using power MOSFET is designed, rigged up and analyzed with three phase star connected RL load for electrical parameters such as output voltage, input current, input power factor, harmonic profile and efficiency using FPGA real time controller. The various PWM techniques such as ramp-DC symmetrical PWM (RDSPWM), ramp-triangular asymmetrical PWM (RTAPWM), sinusoidal asymmetrical PWM type-1 [SAPWM1] and sinusoidal asymmetrical PWM type-2 [SAPWM2] techniques are generated using FPGA real time controller in order to analyze the harmonic profile, input power factor and efficiency of the converter It is required to consider both harmonic profile and input power factor in order to increase the efficiency of power electronic converter. It is observed from experimental results that the RDSPWM technique gives lesser total harmonic distortion [THD] of output voltage and input current than other techniques. It is also observed that the SAPWM1 switching strategy gives high input power factor, more output voltage, high efficiency and moderate improvement of harmonic profile for the entire range of modulation index MI compared to other PWM techniques. Hence SAPWM1 technique is preferred for AC to AC converter than other techniques that renders easy filtration at lower cost.

Autonomous Planetary Vehicle Development Platform: New Perspectives

Bishwajit Pal, Samitha Khaiyum

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 13-35

This paper presents the design, architecture, and constructions of a planetary autonomous exploration vehicle platform, which can be used to develop and test Artificial Intelligence, based software and generate a large dataset for the training of neural networks. It can also be used for testing a wide range of sensors. Rovers will be at the frontier of planetary exploration, capable of executing tasks without human supervision in a harsh and unpredictable environment, and to do so it requires real-time control over its actuators to keep it away from a risky situation. Due to the limitations imposed by communication latency and small window of communication through deep space satellites, existing Mars rovers are semi-autonomous. To develop AI-based software for the rover, a low-cost alternative of a planetary rover is required, which can facilitate data generation from different types of sensors and actuators for a long duration and perform all possible scenarios and actions. Presently this task is done using simulation or replicas of the actual rovers used in planetary missions which are very costly. The proposed rover design is a low-cost alternative, capable of powering, driving varieties of sensors, scale up to new hardware and record data as specified by the user. It can also be used to test the newly developed algorithm before being tested on an actual rover. This platform can be used as a simulation platform for software as the proposed platform is directly in contact with the environmental factors.

Simplified Measurement on the Impact of Radiation by Mobiles: Recent Study

P. Ashok Kumar, Ch. R. Phani Kumar

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 36-43

In fast growing world Mobile phone has become part of the human life. Specific Absorption is a measurement for the amount of Electromagnetic energy that has been absorbed by human tissue. Electromagnetic Radiation associated with Mobile Phones is always as an issue that has to be addressed for human safety, Particularly for children. More focus has been paid to induced SAR in the human head when exposed to EM Waves emitted from mobile Phone Antenna, but while using mobile phone the user gets exposed to a dangerous electromagnetic Radiations. ICNIRP Prescribed some guidelines for EM Exposure Level for Public. The Present paper is discuss the SAR Values of different Mobile Phones, Measured How much People are Aware of SAR Values are given as a survey. The study is compromised individuals that visited in the survey site. The awareness is assessed using structured questions and it was recorded to measure the awareness.

Bandwidth Distribution Algorithm of Applications in LTE-Femtocell Network: Advanced Study

Anita B. Jadhav, Y. Srinivasa Rao

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 44-59

The wireless technology demand is growing exponentially for higher data rate more than 1Gbit/s. The capacity of wireless networks must grow continuously in order to satisfy the demand of traffic from users and applications. Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) have been standardized by 3GPP to target data rate of 100Mbits/s in the downlink and 50Mbits/s in the uplink. In LTE, the concept of self-optimization includes optimization of coverage, capacity, handover and interference. During Handover, in the dense deployment of femtocells, the issues of cell selection and reselection need to optimize. The mobile broadband networks support multiple applications like voice, data, video and email, single IP-based infrastructure. These applications have unique traffic challenging and Quality of Service requirements. In the LTE network the bandwidth is distributed among all the users and active applications using rate requirement of user equipment (UE). To increase user satisfaction in terms of rate of applications, the bandwidth allocation among applications needs to be optimized by dynamic scheduling. The objectives which we focused are Handover optimization and bandwidth optimization in the LTE integrated with femtocell networks. Aiming to our objective we proposed Dynamic Cell Selection (DCS) mechanism for handover optimization and Efficient Bandwidth Distribution (EBD) mechanism for allocating dynamic bandwidth to applications. We can perform the simulation of DCS and EBD mechanism in the NS-3 or similar simulation software to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. The real time experimentation of these mechanisms using Software Defined Radio is also possible. For real time set-up, possible supported technical tools are Xilinx(R) Zynq-Based Radio Support Package, Analog Devices AD9361 and LTE System Toolbox of MATLAB.

Identifying Efficient Road Safety Prediction Model Using Data Mining Classifiers: Recent Advancements

Durga Karthik, K. Vijayarekha

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 60-65

Globally road safety is a major concern to prevent accidents. The aim of the traffic accident analysis for a region is to investigate the cause for accidents and to determine accident prone spots in a region. Multivariate analysis of traffic accidents data is critical to identify major causes for fatal accidents. In this work, accident dataset is analysed using algorithmic approach, as an attempt to address this problem. The reason for accident and with other attributes such as weather, surface, ambience, mobile usage and drunken driving were also considered. Prediction model was derived using various classifiers such as J48, Naive Bayes etc., to enhance safety measures for a accident prone region.

Comparative Study of Image Fusion Techniques in Treatment Planning

Bhuvaneswari Balachander, D. Dhanasekaran

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 66-72

The process by which different images or information from multiple images are combined is termed as Image fusion which is achieved by applying a sequence of operators on the images. Recently, a number of image fusion techniques have been developed. This chapter presents a review on the main categories of image fusion namely spatial domain technique, transform domain technique and statistical domain fusion technique. This chapter also reviews on the importance of image fusion techniques in treatment planning. Image Fusion is one of the latest fields adopted to solve the problems of digital image; image fusion produces high-quality images which contains additional information for the purposes of interpretation, classification, segmentation and compression, etc. The principle requirement of the fusion process is to identify the most significant features in the input images and to transfer them without loss of detail into the fused image. Image Fusion finds its application in vast range of areas. It is used for medical diagnostics and treatment. This chapter presents a brief description of some of the extensively used image fusion techniques for treatment planning. Comparison of all available image fusion techniques concludes a better approach for future research on image fusion.

Standard Intensity Deviation based Recursive Histogram Equalization Contrast Enhancement for Low-exposure Images

K. S. Sandeepa, Basavaraj N. Jagadale, J. S. Bhat

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 73-83

The low exposure images pose challenges in better visibility due to its low light conditions. The visibility can be improved by contrast enhancement.  To improve image contrast, the histogram equalization (HE) is a famous method.  The existing HE based algorithm for low exposure images leads to an over enhancement problem and unnatural appearance. In this framework, the generalized algorithm proposed for contrast improvement, it performs the separation of the histogram based on respective standard intensity deviation value and then recursively equalizes all sub histograms independently. The over-enhancement problem is minimized by this method. Added to this, the presented methodology preserves image information and increases image brightness adaptively. A total of 150 low exposure images are used to evaluate its performance and compared it with several existing state-of-the-art algorithms. The experiment results are analyzed in terms of entropy, absolute mean brightness error (AMBE), degree of entropy un-preservation (DEU) and output image inspection. The proposed method results show significant improvement in enhancing low exposure images.

Comparative Study and Interrelationship of the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Coarse Aggregates Produced in Ogun State

S. S. Omopariola, A. A. Jimoh

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 84-91

This study compares and investigates the relationship between the physical and mechanical properties of granites produced in some parts of Ogun State. Granite Samples were tested for their Specific Gravities, Water Absorptions, Moisture Contents, Aggregates Impact Value and Aggregates Crushing Value in accordance to the relevant standards. Test results were compared with relevant standards and with values from various sites. Regression analysis was used to further determine the relationship between the various properties. Results reveals that although all the samples conform to relevant codes and standards there were variations in test results from one location to the other and between the various sizes obtained from the same location. Statistical analysis reveals that there is significant positive correlation between Moisture Content and Water Absorption, no relationship between Specific Gravity and both Moisture Content and Water Absorption, while the relationship between Aggregate Crushing and Impact value is positive but not significant.

Green Product Factors and Its Impact on Online Purchase Decision of Green Customers

M. Ramesh, Samudhra Rajakumar

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 92-97

Eco-friendliness or being green is a natural way of being friendly to nature by not harming the environment. This can be achieved by following eco-friendly practices in day to day life. There are many factors that influence the purchase decision of a green customer. The purchase decision of customer is influenced by economic, social, financial and demographic factors. Green consumers across the world purchase different kinds of green products. These items vary from food products to household items. In this paper, the green product features that influence the online purchase decision of a green customer is studied.

An Appraisal of the Variation in the Physico– mechanical Properties of Granitic Aggregates: Focus on Some Quarry Sites in Ogun State, Nigeria

S. S. Omopariola, A. A. Jimoh

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 98-106

Coarse aggregate is an essential constituent of concrete constituting about 60% to 80% of concrete depending on the mix ratio. Granite is reported to be the most widely distributed plutonic rock in the earth crust. It is predominantly available in various parts of Ogun State of Nigeria. Its different properties have been known to strongly influence the fresh and hardened state properties of concrete. In this study, samples of four different sizes of granites (9.5 mm, 12.5 mm, 19 mm and 25 mm) were obtained from four different quarry sites across the state. Sieve analysis was carried out on samples from all the locations while the physical properties such as specific gravity, moisture content and water absorption and the Mechanical properties such as aggregate impact value and aggregate crushing value of the samples were evaluated. The result of the sieve analysis reveals that there are variations in the gradations of samples from the various locations. The results of the specific gravity, moisture content and water absorption vary from 2.61 to 2.86, 0.69 to 1.22%, 0.16 to 2.13% respectively. While the aggregate impact value and aggregate crushing value vary from 18.30 to 28.12% and 6.21 to 9.45% respectively. It was therefore concluded that there are variations in the physical and mechanical properties of granites produced in Ogun State of Nigeria. The observed variations occur in relation to the various sizes and for the different quarry sites.  

Geochemistry and Potential Industrial Application of Marble from Ikpeshi, South-West, Nigeria

Romanus Obasi, Fredrick Isife

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 107-114

The aim of this chapter is to use geochemistry to determine the economic potential of marble from Ikpeshi area. Nigeria has a variety of rich solid minerals and rocks such as marble which if fully exploited will boost the economic potentials of the country. Forty five (45) marble samples were collected and subjected to petrographic, physical analyses and geochemical analysis using the inductively coupled plasma –mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Geochemical data indicated that the marble deposits at Ikpeshi has variable geochemical characteristics; some have low dolomite CaMg (CO3)2 (1.35-7.44%) and high calcite CaCO3 (82.78-95.61%) while the Golden Girl quarry has moderate dolomite (41.38-41.42%) and moderate calcite (61.03-61.58%). Physical tests indicated high tensile strength (17.342-31.550MPa), compressive strength (259.515-3892.73MPa) and shear strength (44.70-68.51MPa), respectively. Petrographic studies revealed that the marble contains calcite, dolomite, quartz, opaque mineral, actinolite, lead, feldspar and chlorite at various proportions. Based on these characteristics, the marble from Ikpeshi is suitable as raw materials for manufacture of lime, drugs, toothpaste, paper and paint. It is also important in the production of livestock feed, electrical insulators, flooring tiles and terrazzo chips. The marble is unsuitable as a raw material for the production of cement unless blended.

Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability of a Reinforced Concrete Building Located in India

S. Prasanth, Goutam Ghosh

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 115-123

The effect of earthquake causes loss of life and property in many places all over the world. This creates the need to assess the seismic performance of the structures. The latest development leads to finding the direct losses and damage states of the buildings for various intensities of earthquake ground motions. In the present study, seismic vulnerability assessment was done for a medium rise building (G+5). The design peak ground acceleration of 0.16 g and 0.36 g were considered for the risk assessment. The nonlinear static pushover analysis was done to fine the performance point, spectral acceleration and corresponding spectral acceleration by Equivalent Linearization (EL) method given by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA-440). The four damage states such as slight, moderate, extreme and collapse has been considered as per HAZUS-MR4. The seismic vulnerability in terms of fragility curves was developed to evaluate the damage probabilities based on HAZUS methodology. The discrete and cumulative damage probability was found for all the damage states of the building which shows the building at 0.16 g experience slight damage whereas at 0.36 g the moderate damage state equally becomes predominant.

AL-Transformation on M Class Ak* Operator

P. Shanmugapriya, P. Maheswari Naik

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 124-132

Operators in Complex Hilbert spaces has been the interest of emerging researchers in the recent years. Takayuki Furuta et al studied AL- transformation on p-hyponormal operators in 1996. Later, yamazaki et al. studied AL- transformation and powers of operators for class A(k) operator in the year 2001. This research work was further carried over by Pannayappan et al. and D. Senthil Kumar et al. In this discipline, we studied AL- transformation and *- AL- transformation for the new class of operator named M class Ak* operator on a non-zero Complex Hilbert space.

Restoration of Koolipalayam Reservoir by Using Bioclean STP Technology in Tirupur District, Tamilnadu

S. Mohan, N. Muralimohan, P. Tamilchelvan

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 133-147

This study revealed a poor situation for the  lack of water bodies and the available water bodies being polluted by dying unit effluents and other harmful industrial effluents being let out into the available water source due to lack of waste disposal units. The demand for water in and around Tirupur region is very high as the water bodies are very few in number even the available water bodies are being polluted by dying unit effluents and other harmful industrial effluents being let out into the available water source due to lack of waste disposal units. This Kollipalayam reservoir has been a home for several inland and migratory birds for centuries. The water source is the Nallar River, flowing from the Avinashi big Tank and few sewage canals, carrying the effluents and sewage from Tirupur town. Eventually the water level has never come down due to the above sources. The flora and fauna of this tank attracts as many as 135 species of birds from all over. Inland birds like Spot-billed Pelicans, Painted Storks, and etc. It also brings in a huge number of species from other parts of the World during the winter. Starting from November, every year, various birds flock in to kollipalayam reservoir and spend their winter and leave back to their home by the end of March. Bio-Ozolyte Technology has been implemented to treat and restoration the water in the reservoir. In this technology involves three treatments they are biological treatment, Ozone treatment and Anoyte treatment. This study strongly recommends increases the dissolved oxygen level in the water and makes the water favorable for existence of organisms and fit for usage. If this reservoir is restored, all water demands in and around Tirupur can be met.

DM3730 Processor Hardware Debugging on Linux Platform and Its Application

K. Yadaiah, Vijayalaxmi Biradar, G. Durga Sukumar

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 148-161

Texas Instruments fabricated a single chip DM3730 processor with 45 nm technology with improved performance. Less power consumption and improved Graphics features are the key parameters of ARM architecture. DM3730 has 1 GHz processor with 0.4mm pitch Package on Package. Design of effective system is facilitated by properly debugging the hardware and software. The system for detection of driver fatigue for its implementation requires coming in contact with the camera to capture driver image, speaker for warning messages, GSM module to disseminate SMS, mouse, internet, keyboard, etc. for installing different packages. In this paper, DM3730 Processor is tested for different peripherals on Linux Platform. This paper is a part of research work on the project “Development of Non-Intrusive Driver Fatigue Detection & Alarming System to evade on road accidents” sanctioned under Early Career Research Award sponsored by Science & Engineering Research Board, Govt. of India, New Delhi at Vignan Institute of Technology & Science, Vignan Hills, Hyderabad.

A Simplified and Accurate Method of Computing Inlet Head of Multi-Outlet Pipelines

Atish Sagar, Prashant Singh, Pankaj Malkani

Emerging Trends in Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 5, , 19 June 2020, Page 162-165

The multi-outlet pipelines normally called as lateral lines are the major important components of the micro irrigation and sprinkler irrigation systems. To maintain the allowable discharge variation of the outlets, the variation in pressure along the length of the pipelines due to frictional head loss and elevation is restricted within a specified limit. In this process, the accurate computation of the inlet head of the lateral lines becomes necessary for proper design of the system. The generally used formulae of computing the inlet heads involve different values of coefficients quoted in literature without proper justification. This leads to over or under computed values of the inlet head. In this paper, equations are developed to accurately compute the value of the inlet head of lateral lines. The equations are based on the mathematical series of varying discharge from one outlet to other. The equations are simplified using mathematical logics and finally obtained in the compact forms to be used with the exponents of flow and diameter of different frictional head loss formulae. The verification and application of the formulae are illustrated with the standard example problems. The developed formulae can be easily and accurately used for computing the inlet head of lateral lines of micro irrigation and sprinkler irrigation systems.