Dr. Vijaya Khader,
Department of Foods and Nutrition,Post Graduate and Research Centre, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India.


ISBN 978-81-940613-5-9 (Print)
ISBN 978-93-89246-32-2 (eBook)
DOI: 10.9734/bpi/ctfs/v1


This book covers all areas of food science. The contributions by the authors include zinc toxicity; metals toxicity; mineral vitamins; dietary zinc; smoothie; flax seed; almonds; condiment; ‘ogiri’; watermelon seed; fermentation; dairy calcium; bone mineral content; bone mineral density; seed sprouts; alfalfa sprouts; mung bean sprouts; food safety; lipids; tarhana; cereal-based traditional fermented product; kishk; kushuk; trahanas; moisture content; fruit quality; modified atmosphere packing; cucumber placenta; mango concentrate; carrot, lettuce, green pepper; tomato etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of food science.


Food Science & Technology to Achieve Zero Hunger India

Vijaya Khader

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 1-6

Achieving Zero Hunger is our shared commitment. Now is the time to work as partners and build a truly global movement to ensure the Right to Food for all and to build sustainable agriculture and food systems as per UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon during Committee meeting on World Food Security, Rome, 12 October 2012 [1]. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be more ambitious than the Millennium Development Goals, covering a broad range of interconnected issues, from economic growth to social issues to global public goods. The implementation of SDGs needs every country to judiciously prioritize, and adapt the goals and targets in accordance with local challenges, capacities and resources available. With the breadth of 17 Goals and 169 Targets [2,3,4,5,6&7].

Cyanide Toxicity of Freshly Prepared Smoothies and Juices Frequently Consumed

A. Baker, M. C. Garner, K. W. Kimberley, D. B. Sims, J. H. Stordock, R. P. Taggart, D. J. Walton

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 7-17

Introduction: Humans are exposed to low levels of CN- on a daily basis due to vehicle exhaust, water sources, foods, and even cigarettes smoke. Many of these raw and natural foods such as seeds and nuts have become a large part of human nutrition with the “eat raw and natural” push over the past decade with a reported 40% of adults consuming raw seeds and nuts daily. Most forms of CN- in health foods originate from amygdalin contained in apple seeds and almonds or, linamarin contained in flax seeds. Many of these items are used in the health food industry (e.g., fresh smoothies and juices) as a selling point for improving one’s fitness, vigor, and strength as they are a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, lignans, and fiber.

Aims: This study evaluated popular fruit and vegetable smoothies and juices marketed as raw and natural. Data showed that some items contained the presence of cyanide at various levels.

Study Design: There were eleven (11) popular varieties of drinks analyzed for total cyanide (TCN). These drinks contained juiced raw vegetables and fruits, flax seeds, whole apples with seeds, raw almond milk, and pasteurized almond milk as ingredients.

Place and Study Duration: Sampling was conducted in Las Vegas, Nevada where items were collected from health food eateries during the summer of 2017.

Methodology: Brief, fifty milliliters (mL) of a homogenized smoothie and juice drink and 1 gram of flax seeds were subjected to the above-referenced methods for sample preparation per USEPA Methods 9012B (digestion) followed by USEPA method 9014 (colorimetry).

Results: Data indicated the highest TCN was identified in drinks containing raw flax seeds, followed by unpasteurized raw almond milk, then fresh whole apple juice. It was found that no TCN was present in drinks containing none of the above mentioned ingredients (e.g. flax seed, raw almond milk) or pasteurized ingredients.

Conclusion: Research establish that TCN is present in smoothies and juices containing, highest to lowest, raw flax seeds, fresh whole apples, and/or unpasteurized almond milk. Concentrations were detected as high as 341 μg L-1 in commercially available smoothies containing vegetables, raw flax seeds, and almond milk and fruits. Smoothies containing raw vegetables, fruits, unpasteurized almond milk, and no flax seeds contained 41 ug L-1 TCN, while similar smoothies with pasteurized almond milk contained negligible to 9.6 ug L-1 CN-. Unpasteurized almond milk and raw flax seeds were the major sources of TCN in drinks. With the increased demand for raw and natural foods, there is a potential sublethal exposure of TCN by consumers. Findings have also shown that TCN is present in smoothies and juices containing raw flax seeds, fresh whole apples, and/or unpasteurized almond milk.  Potentially any fruit or vegetable containing cyanogenic glycosides, linamarin and amygdalin, may be contributing to TCN content in health food drinks such as smoothies. Cyanide from linamarin has been linked to a variety of health issues such as diabetes mellitus, neurological deficits, sensory or memory impairments, and weight gain through damage to the adrenal gland function. Moreover, thiocyanate, a metabolic by-product of CN-, has been tied to goiter growth and hypothyroidism. The presence of CN- in these drinks do not pose an acute threat of poisoning; however, this study suggests that a diet consisting of regular raw flax seeds, fresh whole apples, and/or unpasteurized almond milk, smoothie intake may result in chronic sublethal exposure to TCN. The average adult can mitigate CN- toxins consumed in their daily diets. Women who may become pregnant, currently pregnant and people with developing or, compromised immune systems should monitor or restrict their intake of drinks containing raw flax seeds and almonds or unpasteurized almond milk. Finally, additional research is required to fully understand the possible health effects that exist in unprocessed fresh foods.

Microbiological Profile of ‘Ogiri’ Condiment Made from Seeds of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

F. O. Adebayo

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 18-29

Introduction: Condiments are essential part of the diet of various cultures in different parts of the world. Its consumption continues to increase due to some factors that include population growth and increased consumer preferences. A condiment refers to a substance that is added to food to impact a particular desired flavour or texture to the dish. ‘Ogiri’ refers to a fermented oily paste that is used as soup condiments for its strong smell. It is a product prepared by traditional method of uncontrolled solid state fermentation of castor bean (Ricinus communis) and/or melon seeds (Citrullus vulgaris), involving the use of natural inoculation or chance fermentation.

Aim: This research work was conducted to evaluate the microbiological profile of ‘ogiri’ condiment made from the seeds of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

Study Design: This work was a laboratory experimental design study.

Place and Duration of Study: Dept. of Microbiology (Food and Industrial unit), Nasarawa State University, Keffi, between March and April, 2017.

Methodology: Traditional method of ‘ogiri’ production was adopted to prepare the sample in replicates to facilitate the 24-hourly microbiological evaluations. Microbial isolation and identification were done using standard microbiological techniques. Also, laboratory-controlled fermentation was carried out using the isolates obtained from traditional fermentation as starter- cultures.

Results: The result of the traditional fermentation of the watermelon seeds yielded an oily brownish paste that has a strong characteristic pungent aroma. The result of the microbial enumeration showed that bacteria were present throughout the period of fermentation in an increasing population that ranged from 32x101 cfu/g at the starting time (Day 0) to 288 x106 cfu/g at the end of the fermentation period (Day 5). There was no fungal growth at the beginning of the fermentation, till on Day1 (8x103 cfu/g) to the Day 5 (6x106 cfu/g). The isolation of the coliform group of bacteria showed an unusual growth pattern: no coliform isolated from the freshly boiled seeds, coliform was present at Day 1 and 2, and no isolation of coliform bacteria from Day 3 to the end of the fermentation period (Day 5). Over the 5-day period of fermentation, the organisms isolated and identified are Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium xerosis, Lactobacillus fermenti, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, coliform bacteria, yeast and mould.

Conclusion: Hence, it was concluded that ‘ogiri’ condiment can be made from watermelon seeds, using Lactobacillus fermenti, Corynebacterium xerosis and/or Bacillus subtilis as starter cultures. The results obtained from the study have shown the prevalence of bacteria throughout the period of fermentation in an increasing population. Fungi and coliform group of bacteria were not isolated at the beginning of the experiment till after 24 hour of commencing the fermentation process. Filamentous fungi (mould) growth was obtained only after the fifth day of fermentation, thereby suggesting it to be spoilage growth. Bacillus spp. was isolated throughout the fermentation period, thereby proving to be major fermentative organisms. The result of the laboratory-controlled fermentation confirmed that ‘ogiri’ condiment could be obtained with Lactobacillus fermenti, Corynebacterium xerosis and/or Bacillus subtilis starter cultures. However, it is recommended that the products of this study should be further assessed for any possible toxicology study before it can be wholly acceptable for human consumption.

Neurological Impact of Zinc Excess and Zinc Deficiency

Ronald Bartzatt

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 30-36

Zinc is an essential mineral that can cause pathological effects whether in excess or deficiency.  Zinc is a component for over 250 enzymes and is required for cell growth, cell division, and cell function. Zinc is found in muscle and bones, with the prostrate, liver, skin, and kidney having detectable levels of zinc. However, zinc present in excess or deficiency can cause significant pathology in patients that include deleterious effects neurologically. Zinc in excess in vivo can cause focal neuronal pathology, while zinc deficiency can bring about mental lethargy, neuropsychiatric disorders, and reduced nerve conduction. Zinc is assimilated within the body by oral ingestion, dermal exposure, and pulmonary inhalation. Although not generally viewed as a cause of cancer, studies suggest that zinc is associated with progression of prostate malignancy. Toxic levels of zinc have been shown to induce lethargy, neurotoxicity, and gliotoxicity. High levels of zinc causes neuronal death in cortical cell tissue culture. Zinc is known to accumulate following the death of neurons in global ischemia. Therefore, zinc deficiency or excess is of significant clinical concern. Endogenous zinc is known to have important involvement within cytotoxic activity within individual cells. Zinc excess is shown to induce lethargy and focal neuronal reduction. Zinc deficiency has been shown to induce lethargy, neurosensory pathology, neuropsychiatric disorders, and reduction of nerve conduction. Oral ingestion of toxic levels of zinc will produce symptoms of dizziness and lethargy. The inhalation of zinc can bring about shaking, fatigue, and fever. Although zinc acts as a neuromodulator, endogenous zinc can be a potent and rapid neurotoxin. At 300 µM levels, zinc will extensively destroy cortical cells in tissue culture. Neurons exposed to zinc will initiate apoptosis. The activity of zinc in the human body has significant implications for normal health. Zinc in excess or deficit will cause pathological conditions which should be rapidly diagnosed by clinicians.  Further study of the biological activity of zinc is warranted.

Dairy Calcium Intake and Relationship to Bone Mineral Density (BMD), Bone Mineral Content (BMC) and Leptin in Post- Menopausal Women

Dina H. Fakhrawi, W. Lawrence Beeson, Raeida G. Nakhoul, T. Allan Darnell, Zaida R. Cordero-MacIntyre

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 37-48

Previous research has demonstrated that dairy calcium along with calorie restriction can contribute to weight loss while maintaining BMC and BMD. This study was a 3-month demonstration of a culturally sensitive program to evaluate the effects of dairy calcium.

Caloric intake was limited to 1400 kcal/d [Screenshot_110.png 92% of resting energy expenditure]. A total of 56 female subjects were randomized into two equal groups receiving either low dairy calcium Screenshot_215.png800 mg/d or high dairy calcium Screenshot_216.png1400 mg/d intake. The age and body mass index (BMI) at baseline for the low calcium group was 54.46±7.39 years, 32.5±6.6 kg/m2 respectively; and the high calcium group was 56.75± 8.90 years, 33.5±5.8 kg/m2 respectively. Differences after 3 months in weight, BMI, leptin, BMD and BMC were analyzed. Correlations were calculated between leptin and BMD (g/cm2) or BMC (g) before and after intervention. After the intervention in the high calcium group there was an average reduction in weight -1.52±2.08 (kg), (P=0.001); BMI: -0.70±0.86 kg/m2, (p<0.001); leptin: -1.18±5.10 ng/ml, (P =0.231) BMC: -0.009±1.41, (p=0.975) and BMD: 0.001±.017, (p=0.684).  Despite a greater reduction in leptin levels in the low calcium group, changes in all parameters were not different from changes in the low calcium group with an average reduction in weight of -1.93±3.04 (kg), (p=0.002); BMI: -0.74±1.2 kg/m2, (P=0.002); leptin: -2.58±8.38 ng/ml, (P=0.114), BMC: 0.038±1.38, (P=0.887) and BMD: <0.001±.022, (P=0.912). The decrease in leptin level was not correlated with BMD and BMC in both intervention groups (all P>0.05). We observed a significant treatment effect only for leptin where the low calcium group had a bigger reduction compared to the high calcium group.  There was no significant correlation between the change in leptin, BMC and BMD. After the intervention, there was significant reduction in weight, BMI, and leptin in both intervention groups and a non-significant increase in BMC and BMD. There was no correlation between leptin, BMC and BMD. We should take note that this study had a limited sample size and short follow-up period. Nonetheless, based on these findings, we would suggest, that since postmenopausal women have age related bone loss, in addition to a restricted calorie diet (i.e. 1400 kcal/day), the inclusion of increased ≥ 4 servings of low fat dairy to one’s diet for weight management.

Microbiological Quality and Sensory Properties of Tarhanas Produced by Addition Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Sourdough as Starter Culture after Different Fermentation Periods

Fatma Coskun

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 49-56

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate some effects of different starter cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sourdough) and different fermentation times (7, 14 and 21 days) on tarhana.

Place and Duration of Study: Food Engineering Department, Namık Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey, October 2017.

Methodology: Wheat flour, full-fat commercial set-type yoghurt made from cow milk, starter culture (sourdough and dried baker’s yeast as Saccharomyces cerevisiae), fresh red pepper, onion, tomato, dill, parsley, dry mint, table salt and ground black pepper were used as materials. Tarhana doughs prepared using these materials were fermented for 7, 14 and 21 days. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses of tarhana samples were performed using standard methods. Tarhana soups were evaluated by panelists in terms of sensory properties at the end of the 21st day.

Results: pH values of baker's yeast added samples were lower than the others and their acidity were higher than the others during the fermentation period. Dry matter of samples increased with the prolongation of fermentation time. The dry matter of the sample produced using baker's yeast was slightly higher than that of the other sample at day 21. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria (mesophilic rod) counts of tarhana samples with sourdough were always higher than the others during the fermentation. Yeast-mould counts of tarhana samples with baker’s yeast decreased slightly during the fermentation period, but were higher than the others. The coliform group bacteria was not detected on the 7th day of fermentation. Samples were left to fermentation for 7 and 14 days were less favoured than those were left to fermentation for 21 days. On the 21st day of fermentation, the sample added dry baker’s yeast was the most favoured sample.

Conclusion: As a result of the sensory analysis, considering the total score, although the difference between them is slight, baker's yeast added tarhana soups were more favoured than the others. Also, with the prolongation of the fermentation period, in terms of sensory properties, tarhanas were more favoured and microbiologically safer tarhanas were obtained.

A Through-chain Analysis of Microbiological Food Safety Hazards and Control Measures Associated with Production and Supply of Seed Sprouts for Human Consumption

Hong Jin, Adele Yates, Duncan Craig, Patricia Blenman, Scott Crerar

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 57-71

An outbreak that occurred in Australia in 2005 - 2006 due to consumption of alfalfa sprouts contaminated with Salmonella Oranienburg affected 141 individuals, and cost an estimated $1.19 million to the Australian community. An outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 linked to consumption of fenugreek sprouts occurred largely in Germany in 2011, and affected approximately 4,000 individuals. Among them, 908 developed haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome, and 50 died of the infection. These examples demonstrate that seed sprouts contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms present an unacceptable food safety risk to consumers.

This paper describes a through-chain risk analysis that informed the development of an Australian food safety standard for the production and processing of seed sprouts. It expands an extended abstract published in 2014 in the European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety by taking into consideration seed sprout associated outbreaks between 1988 and 2018, and risk mitigation measures implemented by Australian State and Territory food safety authorities to reduce food safety risks imposed by seed sprouts.

The purpose of this paper is to inform government agencies and the fresh produce industry involved in managing seed sprout safety of the science behind the risk mitigation measures developed to minimise food safety risk associated with seed sprouts.

Hydro-Fracture Resistance Properties of Hura crepitans Seed Relevant to Handling and Processing

D. O. Idowu, T. P. Abegunrin, F. A. Buhari, O. O. Ajadi

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 72-78

During harvesting, handling and dehulling, agricultural materials including seeds were subjected to several static and dynamic pressures that may affect the quality of the kernel if not properly handled. This work therefore studied the effects of moisture content on some compressive properties of Hura crepitans as a preparation for the design of the seed dehulling machine. Hura crepitans seeds were conditioned to four different moisture contents (9.3, 12.6, 15.6, and 17.8% db). The effect of moisture contents on energy at yield, energy at break, compressive load at yield, compressive load at break, compressive strain at yield and at break and compressive stress at yield and at break were studied using Instron testing machine (Model 3369). The results of the experiment show an increase in load at break from 44.87 to 356.27N; Load at yield from 10.87 to 83.06 N; and decrease in energy at yield from 0.262 to 0.021J; energy at break from 2.292 to 0.258 J; compressive strain at yield from 0.311 to 0.160 mm/mm; compressive stress at break from 2.809 to 0.384 mm, with increase in moisture in the range studied. The effect of moisture content on all the properties studied were significant (p> 0.05). These result showed that the compressive force properties of Hura crepitans is moisture dependent. The data reported in this work will be of great help during the design of Hura crepitans seed harvester, dehuller, cleaning and sorting equipment for the seed.

Consensus Summit: Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population

K. K. Akinroye, Y. A. Olukosi, T. Atinmo, O. Omueti, C. F. Babasola, O. Idigbe, A. Isah, C. O. Isokpunwu, O. Mobolaji-Lawal, A. Nasidi, O. J. Odia, O. B. Ogunmoyela, O. Okojie, B. J. C. Onwubere, A. Osibogun, R. Schilpzand, O. O. Akinkugbe

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 79-95

Aims: To issue a consensus statement on Lipids and Cardiovascular Health and the impact of their interrelationship in Nigerian Population.

Study Design: Experts from a range of relevant disciplines, deliberated on different aspects of Lipids and Cardiovascular Health in the Nigerian Population at a Summit.

Place and Duration of Study: The Summit was held in April 2016 at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research.

Methodology: Presentations were made on central themes after which expert participants split into four different groups to consider the questions relevant to different sub themes of the title. Consensus was arrived at, from presentations of groups at plenary.

Conclusion: With the increase in the prevalence of NCDs, especially Cardiovascular Disease in Nigeria, and the documented evidence of deleterious effects of lipids, the expert panel called for an urgent need to advocate for the general public and health professionals to make heart-friendly choices in food consumption.

Aqueous 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Utilization on a Non-climacteric Fruit: Cucumber

Muharrem Ergun

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 96-108

The present study aimed to evaluate a utilization of aqueous 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on a non-climacteric fruit of cucumber, and to compare with/to gaseous 1-MCP and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) applications. Fruits of cucumbers (Erdemli F1) were either treated with aqueous or gaseous 1-MCP (1 ppm), or left untreated for MAP storage or controls. The cucumbers were afterwards put into PET clamshell containers except for MAP application and stored 23 ± 1°C for 10 days for simulating retail shelf-life conditions. The cucumbers were then tested periodically to record changes in quality as determined by weight loss, firmness, color, gas composition (O2, CO2, and N2), total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, chlorophyll content, and decay during the storage time. Either aqueous or gaseous 1-MCP application had a no significant effect on weight or firmness loss. Illustrated by peel color values measured during the storage period, there were no significant differences among the treatments. Total soluble solids, pH or titratable acidity did not show a significant change or variation among treatments during the storage as well. Cucumbers stored in modified atmosphere packages showed higher chlorophyll a amount than those treated with 1-MCP. The results of the present work indicates that neither aqueous 1-MCP application nor gaseous 1-MCP application is effective for retaining quality loses and consequently for extending shelf life of the cucumbers kept at 23°C.

Influence of Storage on Some Physicochemical and Microbial Properties of Concentrates from Two Sudanese Mangos (Mangifera indica) Varieties

Ann O. K. Elsheikh, Abd Elazeem A. M. Nour, Abd Elmoneim O. Elkhalifa

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 109-117

Aims: To produce concentrates at remote areas of production, where fruits are expected to be cheaper and hence compete with imported concentrates.

Study Design: Factorial Experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Sudan and Food Research Center, Shambat, Sudan, between September 2009 and May 2010.

Methodology: Two mango (Mangifera indica) varieties Abu Samaka and Baladi were used to produce concentrate and the concentrate was stored at ambient temperature and a refrigerator at 4ºC for 6 months. The concentrates were prepared by using open kettle boiler (100ºC) and they were packed in cans using double seam machine.

Results: The Baladi variety gave higher total soluble solids (TSS) than Abu Samaka. Abu Samaka exhibited an excellent percentage (29.7%) of total sugars during storage and the total titrable acidity of mango concentrate in the two varieties reported a slightly increase. The reducing sugars increased gradually with storage time. The two varieties showed retention of ascorbic acid content during storage. There was no growth of E. coli, yeast and molds in the concentrates of the two varieties tell the end of the storage period (6 months). The concentrates from the two varieties at both temperatures were acceptable by the panelists.

Conclusion: The two varieties showed suitability in processing to give mango concentrate.

Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Coating on Shelf Life and quality Retention of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Fruits during Storage

Zakki Yula Hosea, Liamngee Kator, Ameh Linus Owoicho, Terna David Agatsa

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 118-131

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. Effect of Neem leaf coating on the shelf life and quality retention of tomato fruits during storage was investigated. Three varieties of tomato fruits (UTC, Shase and Hoozua) obtained from Wurukum market in Makurdi were treated with Neem leaf coating to extend their shelf life and maintain their quality during storage. Significant variations were observed among the varieties in relation to most of the parameters studied. Irrespective of treatment, weight loss, postharvest decay, marketability and firmness decreased with increase in storage duration. Temperature ranged from 28.43 – 31.89°C. For weight evaluation, UTC ranged from 4.95 – 45.28, Shase ranged from 4.40 – 45.16 and Hoozua ranged from 4.62 – 59.48. Among the three varieties, UTC and Shase showed lower postharvest decay of 0.00 – 10.00 than Hoozua with postharvest decay of 1.00 – 10.00 and the lower postharvest decay was found in the treated fruits. Marketability ranged from 10.00 – 0.00 for all varieties and firmness ranged 4.00 – 2.00 for all varieties. Comparatively, all varieties treated with Neem leaf powder had same shelf life of (22.0±0.00) days, while control fruits of Hoozua variety produced the least shelf life of (15.0±0.00) days and UTC control fruits produced the highest with (19.0±0.00) days. Four fungi namely Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Botryodiplodia theobromae were isolated from the decaying tomato fruits. The findings of this research indicate that powder from the leaf of Neem plant can be used to extend the shelf life and maintain the quality of tomato fruits beyond their known natural limits.

Comparative Evaluation of Organic and Conventional Vegetables on Physical and Chemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activity

Fernanda de Oliveira Pereira, Renata dos Santos Pereira, Lana de Souza Rosa, Anderson Junger Teodoro

Current Trends in Food Science Vol.1, , 18 October 2019, Page 132-144

The objective of this research was to perform a quantitative and comparative analysis of physical and chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity in organic and conventional carrot (Daucus carota), green pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Five representative samples of each conventional vegetables, certified organic and non-certified organic vegetables were gotten from farms and supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All samples were underwent the following analyzes: reducing sugars, total sugars, ºBrix, vitamin C, density, acidity, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means compared by Tukey's test at 5% probability. The result shows that the organic carrot showed higher acidity (0.11 g% citric acid) and total sugar (5.68 g%) than those found in standard samples and certified organic ones (p<0.05). Regarding the density analysis and total soluble solids, there was no statistical difference between carrots, green peppers and lettuce from all types (p>0.05). It was observed that the vitamin C levels in carrot samples levels had no significant difference between the different forms of production (p>0.05). Conventional lettuce and certified organic pepper showed higher vitamin C than the other samples (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity of the samples was analyzed by the capacity to reduce the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl- hydrazyl) radical, in which carrot and conventional pepper showed lower antioxidant activity (p<0.05) when compared to organic samples. There were no significant differences among the different forms of production in the lettuce samples (p>0.05). Carrot and green pepper, with seal certification or not, showed higher capacity to reduce DPPH than the conventional ones, this suggests that the form of cultivation has a direct relationship with the nutritional values of the vegetables.